Judicial Corruption as a Violation of Professional Ethics





Judicial Independence, Judicial Accountability, Judges’ Code of Ethics, Judicial Impartiality, Judicial Corruption


Purpose:  The purpose of this study is to present some ethical issues facing the Indonesian judiciary by exploring the usefulness of judicial codes of ethics. The ethical crisis of judges occurred at a time when judicial independence was strong post the amendment of the 1945 Constitution. The judicial crises triggered uncertainty and pessimism about judicial accountability


Theoretical framework:   Legal literature states that fair, honest, and impartial legal processes cannot be separated from that of ​​an independent judiciary [Shugermann, 2010: 1061]. The independence and impartiality of the court as one of the ten minimum conditions for creating a constitutional society.


Design/methodology/approach:   In this study, the author conducted normative legal research.  This method helps examine the juridical standards contained in laws and court decisions. Furthermore, library research was conducted to obtain data from primary, secondary, and tertiary legal materials.


Findings: Despite the judiciary gaining strong independence following the amendments of the 1945 Constitution in 2001–2002, unfortunately, the judiciary suffers from an accountability crisis, as seen through the arrests of several judges for bribery.


Research, Practical & Social implications:  We hope that this research can bring awareness and increase adherence to the code of ethics of the judicial profession.


Originality/value:  It is hoped that the ideas and issues raised in this paper will help the judiciary recognize the importance of developing, maintaining, and, most importantly, honouring a code of ethics in keeping with the ethical obligations of the judicial office.


Download data is not yet available.


Ackerman, B. (2000). The New Separation of Powers. The Harvard Law Review.

Al-Rubaye, M., F., E. (2022). Administrative Corruption: Causes And Solutions Special Reference To Iraq. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 7(5), e01015. https://doi.org/10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.e1015

Asshiddiqie, J. (2006). Pengantar Ilmu Hukum Tata Negara (Introduction to Constitutional Law). The Secretariat General of Constitutional Court.

Beijing Statement of Principles of the Independence of Judiciary in the Law Asia Region, (1995).

Cappellati, M. (1983). Who Watches the Watchmen? A Comparative Study on Judicial Responsibility. American Journal Comparative, 31(1).

Consolidating the Code of Ethics and Code of Conduct for Judges, (2014).

Cohen, Morris, L. and Olson, K., C. (1992). Legal Research, in a Nutshell. St. Paul West Publishing Co.

Ferejohn, J. (1999). Independent Judges, Dependent Judiciary: Explaining Judicial Independence. Southern California Law Review, 72(353).

Halim, H. (2014). Historic Sentence Akil. The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2014/07/01/historic-sentence-akil.html

Harman, B., K. (1997). Konfigurasi Politik dan Kekuasaan Kehakiman di Indonesia (Political Configuration and Judicial Power in Indonesia). Elsam.

International Bar Association Code of Minimum Standards of Judicial Independence, (1982).

International Principles on the Independence and Accountability of Judges, Lawyers, and Prosecutors: A Practioner’s Guide, (2004).

Kelsen, H. (1961). General Theory of Law and State. Russell & Russell.

Kelsen, H. (1961). Pure Theory of Law. University of California Press.

Kompas.com. (2013). Kronologi Penangkapan Akil Mochtar. Kompas Nasional. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2013/10/03/1837456/Kronologi.Penangkapan.Akil.Mochtar

Larkins, C., M. (1996). Judicial Independence and Democratization: A Theoretical and Conceptual Analysis. The American Journal of Comparative Law.

Locke, J. (1985). Two Treaties (Fifth). Steven and Sons.

MacKay, A., W. (1995). Judicial Ethics: Exploring Misconduct and Accountability for Judges. Commonwealth Judicial Education Institute Publications.

Mahmodin, M., M. (1999). Pergumulan Politik dan Hukum Di Indonesia, (Political and Legal Struggles in Indonesia). Gama Media.

Montesquieu, B., D. (1949). The Spirit of the Laws. Hafner Press.

Mt. Scopus Standards, (2008).

New Delhi Minimum Standards on Judicial Independence/International BAR Association, (1982).

O’Connor, S., D. (2008). Judicial Accountability Must Safeguard, Not Threaten, Judicial Independence: An Introduction. Denver Law Review, 86(1).

Shetreet, S. and Forsyth, C. (2012). The Culture of Judicial Independence: Conceptual Foundations and Practical Challenges. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Shetreet, S. (1985). Judicial Independence: The Contemporary Debate (with J. Deschenes, as consulting editor). Martinus Nijhoff.

Strong, C., F. (2004). Konstitusi-Konstitusi Politik Modern (Modern Political Constitutions).

Suny, I. (1982). Mencari Keadilan, sebuah Otobiografi (Looking for Justice, an Autobiography). Ghalia Indonesia.Nuansa dan Nusamedia.

Suny, I. (1986). Pergeseran Kekuasan Eksekutif, (Executive Power Shift). Aksara Baru.

Tandoh, I. (2022). Corporate Governance, Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Sustainability: The Moderating Role Of Top Management Commitment. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 7(2), e0309. https://doi.org/10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.309

The 1945 State Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia.

The Bangalore Principles of Judicial Conduct, (2002).

The Constitutional Court Decision of No. 5/PUU-III/2006.

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, (1966).

The Montréal Universal Declaration on the Independence of Justice, (1983).

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, (1948).

Thohari, A, A. (2004). Komisi Yudisial dan Reformasi Peradilan (Judicial Commission and Judicial Reform). Elsam.




How to Cite

Asrun, A. M. (2023). Judicial Corruption as a Violation of Professional Ethics. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 8(2), e01125. https://doi.org/10.26668/businessreview/2023.v8i2.1125