Strategic Planning Model and its Impact on the Development of Micro-Enterprises in the Services Sector in Mexico
Keywords:Micro-Enterprises, Services Sector, Strategic Planning Model, Proactive Approach
Purpose: The aim of this study is to offer the design of a strategic planning model for micro-enterprises from services economic sector in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico and measure its impact on their growth and development.
Theoretical framework: The research reviewed a variety of strategic planning models, which contributed in the design of this new model tailored to Hidalgo’s micro-enterprises from services sector, the main objective is to contribute to their growth and development. Larios (2016), refers to the strategic process sequential model as the set of activities which are conducted in a specific sequence in order to project the future of the organization and achieve their vision, Larios (2016), establishes that this model is made of three stages: designing, implementing and evaluating which is completed by adding conclusions and recommendations. On the other hand, the strategic planning model proposed by Stanton, Etzel and Walter suggests a logical sequence that combines strategic and marketing planning, establishing the specific route that the marketing department needs to follow (Chávez, 2017). A detailed description of the models reviewed during the research work is presented in the literature review section.
Design/methodology/approach: The study applies a quantitave methodology with a non-experimental and transactional – correlational. A questionnaire with Likert scale of five points from totally agree to totally disagree, was given to managerial staff from the sample companies. The sample subject of study consists of 174 micro-enterprises from the services sector located in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico. The quantitative analysis conducted is based on inferential statistics, specifically multiple correlation analysis where the dependent variable is strategic planning and the independent variables are corporate philosophy, key internal factors, key external factors, SWOT analysis, situational diagnosis, objectives and strategic control (Hill y Jones 2015).
Findings: The research findings are that the dimensions that have a positive effect on strategic planning are; philosophy, internal factors, external factors, and strategic objectives. This was obtained after validating the multiple regression equation;
Ackoff, R. (2012). Ackoff's paradigm: Systemic management. Mexico: Limusa Wiley.
Alvarado, M. (2020) Implementation of Strategic Management in Salinas microenterprises. (Undergraduate thesis). Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.
Bernal Payares, O. (2018). Strategic planning and corporate sustainability. Global Knowledge, 3(1), 50-55. http://conocimientoglobal.org/revista/index.php/cglobal/article/view/27
D'alessio, F. A. (2015). The Strategic Process: A Management Approach (3rd ed.). Pearson Education. https://docplayer.es/18424837-Ei-proceso-estrategico-un-enfoque-de-gerencia.html
National Statistical Directory of Economic Units. (2020). Eleventh edition of the National Statistical Directory of Economic Units. https://www.inegi.org.mx/app/mapa/denue/
Domínguez, B, M., Gordillo, L, J., Vega, C., & Alarcón, A. (2017). Factors that determine the closure of micro and small enterprises, a comparative analysis between active and inactive companies. Case of Tulancingo de Bravo, Santiago Tulantepec, Cuautepec de Hinojosa and Acaxochitlán, Hidalgo. In. Mexico (Ed.), Factors that determine the closure of micro and small enterprises, a comparative analysis between active and inactive companies in Mexico and Colombia (pp.349-360). Mexico, Mexico City: Pearson Education Mexico.Chávez, O., (2017). Strategic marketing plan for the launch of an informative newspaper in the municipality of Maracaibo (Master's Thesis). Rafael Belloso Cachin University, Venezuela.
Chávez, O., (2017). Strategic marketing plan for the launch of an informative newspaper in the Maracaibo municipality (Master's Thesis). Rafael Belloso Cachin University, Venezuela.
Chiavenato, I. (2017). Strategic Planning (Third ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.
Choque, R. (2015). Strategic Approach (1st ed.). Macro EIRL.
Financial Times. (2020, June 19). Prospering in the pandemic: the top 100 companies. Retrieved December 19, 2022. https://www.ft.com/content/844ed28c-8074-4856-bde0-20f3bf4cd8f0
Flayyih, H. H., Mutashar, S. S., & Murad, A. H. (2022). Measuring the Level of Performance of Accounting Units and Their Impact on the Control Environment. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 7(4), e0680. https://doi.org/10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i4.e680
Fred, R. D. (2003). Concepts of Strategic Planning (9th ed.). Pearson Education. https://maliaoceano.files.wordpress.com/2017/03/libro-fred-david-9a-edicion-con-estrategica-fred-david.pdf
Gallardo, E. (2016, 15 May). Planning fundamentals. University of Barcelona. http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/bitstream/2445/32363/1/Fundamentos%20de%20planificaci%C3%B3n.pdf
Ganga, F., Ramos Hidalgo, M.E., Leal Millán, A.G., & Pérez, K. (2015). Strategic management: Application of the balanced scorecard (CMI) to a non-governmental organization. Journal of Social Sciences (RCS), 21 (1), 136-159
Gómez, G. (1992). Planning and organization of companies (8th ed.). MCGRAW HILL.
Hair, J. F., Prentice, E., & Cano, D. (1999). Multivariate analysis (5. to ed.). Pearson Education.
Hill, C. W., & Jones, G. R. (2015). Strategic Management A Comprehensive Theory and Case Approach (11th ed.). CENGAGE Learning. https://www.academia.edu/32285377/Administraci%C3%B3n_Estrat%C3%A9gica_Un_enfoque_integral_teor%C3%ADa_y_casos_11ed_Hill_Charles_W_Gareth_R_pdf
Humphrey, A. S. (December 2005). SWOT Analysis for Management Consulting. SRI Alumni Association Newsletter.
National Institute of Statistics and Geography. (2022, 2 December). Survey on the Economic Impact Generated by COVID-19 on Companies (ECOVID-IE) 2022. INEGI. https://www.inegi.org.mx/programas/ecovidie/2020/
National Institute of Statistics and Geography. (2020, December 9). Gross Domestic product by State, for Hudalgo in 2020. (ECOVID-IE) 2022. INEGI. https://www.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/saladeprensa/boletines/2021/pibe/PIBE_HIDALGO_2020.pdf
National Institute of Statistics and Geography. (2018, 4 October). Global Index of Employed Personnel of Economic Sectors (IGPOSE). https://www.snieg.mx/Documentos/Economico/sesiones/doc_12018/4_IGPOSE_Metodologia.pdf
Juárez, F. (2020, April 1). Social and administrative sciences | Management and administration of SMEs Anthology | Strategic planning. Open and Distance University of Mexico UnADM. https://www.academia.edu/9229600/Ciencias_sociales_y_administrativas_Gesti%C3%B3n_y_administraci%C3%B3n_de_PyMES_Antolog%C3%ADa_Planeaci%C3%B3n_estrat%C3%A9gica
Kaplan, Robert S. & David P. Norton (2016). "The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy Into Action", Harvard Business School Press. (Also in Spanish edited by Gestión 2000)
Kaplan R. and Norton D. (1992). The Balanced Scoreboard- Measures that Drive Performance. Harvard Business Review. Boston, Massachusetts.
Lajara, B., M., Martínez, J., Ruiz, L., & Seva, P. (2022). Evolution of thought in the discipline of strategic management: The vision of the company based on dynamic capabilities and knowledge. [Digital]. In Investigation and Transfer of the Social Sciences Facing a World in Crisis. (pp. 1801–1826). Dykinson S.L. https://www.dykinson.com/libros/investigacion-y-transferencia-de-las-ciencias-sociales-frente-a-un-mundo-en-crisis/9788413779249/
Larios, P. (2016). A look at the concept of the Strategic Process. Consortium of Universities., 4-18. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/302344089_Una_mirada_al_concepto_del_Proceso_Estrategico
Lima, A. (2021, January 13). Fred R. David's model for strategic planning. Techologhocal platform for the management of excellence. https://www.isotools.org/2021/01/13/modelo-de-fred-r-david-para-la-planeacion-estrategica/
Linares., A. (2020). Logistics module I Processes of the supply of goods. (First ed. ed.). Map Group.
López Ruiz, Víctor Raúl, & Nevado Peña, Domingo (2016). Strategic control model from the perspective of the value of intangibles. Method and application. INNOVATE. Journal of Administrative and Social Sciences, 26 (59),9-20. [date of Consultation January 21, 2022]. ISSN: 0121-5051. https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=81843213002
Porter, M. E. (1980). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. Nueva York: Free Press.
Rivera, R. S. (2016). Change management: a methodological proposal from the strategic process. 360: Journal of Management Sciences, (1), 38-86.
Ritchey, Ferris J. (2008). Statistics for the Social Sciences (2nd ed.). Mexico: Mc Graw Hill.
Rodríguez Aldana, M. L., & Fong Reynoso, C. (2020). Bibliometric analysis of critical success factors for the strategic management of SMEs. Nova Scientia, 12(24), 29. https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v12i24.2267
Rowntree, D. (1983). Introduction to Statistics: A Non-Mathematical Approach (2nd ed.). Norm. https://books.google.com.mx/books/about/Introducci%C3%B3n_a_la_estad%C3%ADstica.html?id=gJt0QgAACAAJ&redir_esc=y
Sáenz, A. (2016). Strategic Planning: A response to resource management in the social Sector? ETSoc, 579–589. https://www.binasss.sa.cr/revistas/ts/v20n431995/art05.pdf
Sandoval, K. V., Garcia, A. M. A., & Garcia, M. L. S. (2022). Perception of the effects of the pandemic and resilience of Hidalgo microentrepreneurs. Vinculategica Efan, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.29105/vtga7.1-95
Sampieri, R. H. (2018). Research Methodology: quantitative, qualitative and mixed routes. McGraw-Hill Education.
Sriyono, Nugroho, S. P., Soeprapto, A., & Sirait, A. (2022). Strategic Management Accounting Techniques for Strategic Costing in Village-Owned Enterprises. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 7(6), e0810. https://doi.org/10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i6.810
Staton, W. J., Etzel, M. J., & Walker, B. J. (2007). Fundamentals of marketin (14th ed.). McGraw-Hill. https://mercadeo1marthasandino.files.wordpress.com/2015/02/fundamentos-de-marketing-stanton-14edi.pdf
Steiner, G. A. (1986). Strategic Planning What Every Director Should Know (3rd ed.). Continental Publishing Company. https://es.scribd.com/document/341436737/Planeacion-Estrategica-George-Steiner-pdf
Steiner, G. A. (1979). Strategic Planning: What Every Manager Must Know. New York,F. Press, Ed.
Suárez, E, M. (2017). Structural Analysis of the EFQM model of excellence: The mediating role of process management and strategic planning (Doctoral thesis). University of Seville, Seville, Spain.
Quintero Chacón, Adalberto, & Fernández Elías, Rafael. (2017). The management audit and the financial perspective of the Balanced Scorecard. Cofin Havana, 11(2), 1-20. http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2073-60612017000200001&lng=es&tlng=es.
URIBE MACIAS, Mario Enrique. Proposal of the process of application of strategic management for SMEs. Pensam. gest. [online]. 2021, n.51, pp.15-53. Nov 08, 2022. ISSN 1657-6276.
Valencia, K. S., García, A. M. A., & García, M. L. S. (2022). Perception of the effects of the pandemic and resilience of micro-entrepreneurs in Hidalgo Vinculategica Efan, 7(1), 196–206. https://doi.org/10.29105/vtga7.1-95
Weihrich, H. (1982). The TOWS matrix: tool for situational analysis. Long Range Planning, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 54-66. London
Zurita, P. (2019, 25 May). The sequential model of the strategic process. Pontifical Catholic University of Peru. https://www.studocu.com/pe/document/pontificia-universidad-catolica-del-peru/evaluacion-de-proyectos/apuntes/el-modelo-secuencial-del-proceso-estrategico/3509296/view
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Edwin Chofo Ortega de la Cruz, Liliana de Jesús Gordillo Benavente, Carmen Guadalupe Juárez Rivera, Martha Ríos Manriquez
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms: the author(s) authorize(s) the publication of the text in the journal;
The author(s) ensure(s) that the contribution is original and unpublished and that it is not in the process of evaluation by another journal;
The journal is not responsible for the views, ideas and concepts presented in articles, and these are the sole responsibility of the author(s);
The publishers reserve the right to make textual adjustments and adapt texts to meet with publication standards.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right to first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Atribuição NãoComercial 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which allows the work to be shared with recognized authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are allowed to assume additional contracts separately, for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (e.g. publish in institutional repository or as a book chapter), with recognition of authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are allowed and are encouraged to publish and distribute their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on a personal web page) at any point before or during the editorial process, as this can generate positive effects, as well as increase the impact and citations of the published work (see the effect of Free Access) at http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html