Management of Ecological Resources for Sustainable Tourism: A Systematic Review on Community Participation in Ecotourism Literature

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i1.269

Keywords:

Ecotourism, Community Participation, Community Based Ecotourism, Community Involvement, Sustainable Development

Abstract

Objectives of the study: This paper aims to analyse how community participation is viewed and implemented in ecotourism projects with evidence from ecotourism literature. The paper elaborates on the evolution and trends of community participation in ecotourism projects.

Methodology: With the use of content analysis method, the study analyses literature in the form of journal articles. For the analysis, research articles published from 1990-2019 were collected from journal databases and search engines, including Scopus, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis, and Google Scholar.

Originality/ Relevance: The present study intends to address the research gap in ecotourism literature that reviews and descriptively analyze the disseminated information on community participation

Findings: The main findings suggest that only some ecotourism projects are successfully running with the full participation of local communities. The extent and type of community participation vary in each ecotourism project depending on social, cultural, and political factors. It also points out the presence of contradicting views regarding its effectiveness and applicability.

Theoretical/ Methodological Contributions: Analysis of ecotourism literature on one of the key aspects of ecotourism is necessary to investigate and understand the patterns and themes of community participation and contributes on the directions for future research.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Uswathul Hasana, Pondicherry University

Uswathul Hasana is a full-time Ph. D research scholar in the Department of Tourism Studies, Pondicherry University, under the guidance of Prof. Sampada Kumar Swain. She is a rank holder in both her Bachelor’s and Master’s in Tourism and Travel Management. She has been awarded the Junior Research Fellowship by UGC, and her areas of interest are Ecotourism, Sustainable Tourism Development, and Tourism- Community Development.

Sampada Kumar Swain, Pondicherry University

Sampada Kumar Swain is Professor and Head of the Department of Tourism Studies, Pondicherry University. He has obtained all his degrees (Graduation, PG, Ph.D. & D.Litt.) from Utkal University, Bhubaneswar. He served in RCM, Bhubaneswar, before joining Pondicherry University in 2004 as a lecturer. He was on deputation to IGNTU, Amarkantak, MP, as Professor from 2012 to 2018. He published three dozen research papers, two edited books, and one reference book. Prof. Swain has co-authored a book titled “Tourism Principles and Practices, published by OUP. His areas of research interest include Sustainable Tourism, Ecotourism, Responsible Tourism, Community-based Tourism, Destination Image, and Social Tourism. 

Babu George, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee

Professor and Associate Dean in the School of Business of Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, USA. He has a PhD in Management, a DBA in International Business, and an EdS in Higher Education Innovation and Leadership. He is a graduate of Harvard University’s Institute for Educational Management. In addition, he has completed multiple postdoctoral professional development experiences. Sustainable development in the services industry context is one of his major areas of research.

References

Adeleke, B. O., & Nzama, T. (2013). Assessment of Community Participation in Ecotourism and Conservation at Hhuhuwe-Umfolozi Park, South Africa. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 3, 12.

Afenyo, E. A., & Amuquandoh, F. E. (2014). Who Benefits from Community-based Ecotourism Development? Insights from Tafi Atome, Ghana. Tourism Planning & Development, 11, 179–190.

Afua, A. E. (2012). Community participation in ecotourism: Evidence From Tafi Atome, Ghana. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 2.

Akama, J. S. (1996). Western environmental values and nature-based tourism in Kenya. Tourism Management, 17(8), 567–574. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(96)00077-5

Ali, M. B., Quaddus, M., Rabbanee, F. K., & Shanka, T. (2020). Community Participation and Quality of Life in Nature-Based Tourism: Exploring The Antecedents and Moderators. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 109634802098009. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348020980094

Amati, C. (2013). “We all voted for it”: Experiences of participation in community-based ecotourism from the foothills of Mt Kilimanjaro. Journal of Eastern African Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, 650–670. https://doi.org/10.1080/17531055.2013.841023

Appiah-Opoku, S. (2004). Rethinking Ecotourism: The Case of Kakum National Park in Ghana. African Geographical Review, 23(1), 49–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/19376812.2004.9756178

Araújo, C. C. S. de, & Carneiro Junior, E. da S. (2020). A Bibliometric Analysis of the Intellectual Structure of Studies on Slavery in the 21st Century. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 5(1), 105–127. https://doi.org/10.26668/businessreview/2020.v5i1.175

Aweto, O. D., Fawole, O. P., & Saayman, M. (2019). The effect of distance on community participation in ecotourism and conservation at Okomu National Park Nigeria. GeoJournal, 1337–1351.

Babbie, E. R. (2008). The Basics of Social Research (4th ed). Thomson Wadsworth.

Barkin, D., & Pailles, C. (1999). NGO-Community Collaboration for Ecotourism: A Strategy for Sustainable Regional Development. Tourism Recreation Research, 24(2), 69–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.1999.11014878

Bello, F. G., Lovelock, B., & Carr, N. (2016). Enhancing community participation in tourism planning associated with protected areas in developing countries: Lessons from Malawi. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 18(3), 309–320. https://doi.org/10.1177/1467358416647763

Bello, F. G., Lovelock, B., & Carr, N. (2017). Constraints of community participation in protected area-based tourism planning: The case of Malawi. Journal of Ecotourism, 16(2), 131–151. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2016.1251444

Belsky, J. M. (2009). Misrepresenting Communities: The Politics of Community-Based Rural Ecotourism in Gales Point Manatee, Belize1. Rural Sociology, 64(4), 641–666. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1549-0831.1999.tb00382.x

Bhalla, P., Coghlan, A., & Bhattacharya, P. (2016). Homestays’ contribution to community-based ecotourism in the Himalayan region of India. Tourism Recreation Research, 41(2), 213–228. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2016.1178474

Blamey, R. K. (2001). Principles of Ecotourism. In D. B. Weaver (Ed.), The encyclopedia of ecotourism. CABI Pub.

Brohman, J. (1996). New Directions in Tourism for Third World Development. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(1).

Buckley, R. (2005). In search of the Narwhal: Ethical Dilemmas in Ecotourism. Journal of Ecotourism, 4(2), 129–134. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040409480344

Butcher, J. (2005). The Moral Authority of Ecotourism: A Critique. Current Issues in Tourism, 8(2–3), 114–124. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500508668208

Butcher, J. (2006). The United Nations International Year of Ecotourism: A critical analysis of development implications. Progress in Development Studies, 6(2), 146–156. https://doi.org/10.1191/1464993406ps133oa

Butcher, J. (2010). The Mantra of ‘Community Participation’ in Context. Tourism Recreation Research, 35(2), 201–205. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2010.11081634

Butcher, J. (2011). Can ecotourism contribute to tackling poverty? The importance of ‘symbiosis.’ Current Issues in Tourism, 14(3), 295–307. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2011.555526

Cabral, C., & Dhar, R. L. (2020). Ecotourism research in India: From an integrative literature review to a future research framework. Journal of Ecotourism, 19(1), 23–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2019.1625359

Cater, E. (2006). Ecotourism as a Western Construct. Journal of Ecotourism, 5(1–2), 23–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040608668445

Chen, B., & Qiu, Z. (2017). Community attitudes toward ecotourism development and environmental conservation in nature reserve: A case of Fujian Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, China. Journal of Mountain Science, 14(7), 1405–1418. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-016-3983-6

Chengcai, T., Linsheng, Z., & Shengkui, C. (2012). Tibetan Attitudes Towards Community Participation and Ecotourism. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 3(1), 8–15. https://doi.org/10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2012.01.002

Chirozva, C. (2015). Community agency and entrepreneurship in ecotourism planning and development in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area. Journal of Ecotourism, 14(2–3), 185–203. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2015.1041967

Cobbinah, P. B., Black, R., & Thwaites, R. (2015). Ecotourism implementation in the Kakum Conservation Area, Ghana: Administrative framework and local community experiences. Journal of Ecotourism, 14(2–3), 223–242. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2015.1051536

Coria, J., & Calfucura, E. (2012). Ecotourism and the development of indigenous communities: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Ecological Economics, 73, 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2011.10.024

Das, M., & Chatterjee, B. (2015). Ecotourism: A panacea or a predicament? Tourism Management Perspectives, 14, 3–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.01.002

de los Angeles Somarriba-Chang, M., & Gunnarsdotter, Y. (2012). Local community participation in ecotourism and conservation issues in two nature reserves in Nicaragua. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(8), 1025–1043. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2012.681786

Diamantis, D. (1999). The Concept of Ecotourism: Evolution and Trends. Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 2, No. 2 & 3.

Duffy, R. (2008). Neoliberalising Nature: Global Networks and Ecotourism Development in Madagasgar. Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Elo, S., & Kyngäs, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(1), 107–115. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x

Eshun, G., & Tichaawa, T. M. (2019). Reconsidering Participation for Local Community Well-Being in Ecotourism in Ghana. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 27(4), 1184–1200. https://doi.org/10.30892/gtg.27406-425

Farrelly, T. A. (2011). Indigenous and democratic decision-making: Issues from community-based ecotourism in the Boumā National Heritage Park, Fiji. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(7), 817–835. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2011.553390

Fennell, D. A. (2001). A Content Analysis of Ecotourism Definitions. Current Issues in Tourism, 4(5).

Fennell, D. A. (2008). Ecotourism and the Myth of Indigenous Stewardship. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(2), 129–149. https://doi.org/10.2167/jost736.0

Fletcher, R. (2009). Ecotourism discourse: Challenging the stakeholders theory. Journal of Ecotourism, 8(3), 269–285. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040902767245

Foucat, V. S. A. (2002). Community-based ecotourism management moving towards sustainability, in Ventanilla, Oaxaca, Mexico. Ocean & Coastal Management, 45(8), 511–529. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0964-5691(02)00083-2

Garrod, B. (2003). Local Participation in the Planning and Management of Ecotourism: A Revised Model Approach. Journal of Ecotourism, 2(1), 33–53. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040308668132

Goodwin, H. (1996). In pursuit of ecotourism. Biodiversity and Conservation 5, 277–291.

Goodwin, H. (2002). Local Community Involvement in Tourism around National Parks: Opportunities and Constraints. Current Issues in Tourism.

Gumede, T. K., & Nzama, A. T. (2019). Comprehensive Participatory Approach as a Mechanism for Community Participation in Ecotourism. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 8(4).

Gurung, D. B., & Scholz, R. W. (2008). Community-based ecotourism in Bhutan: Expert evaluation of stakeholder-based scenarios. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 15(5), 397–411. https://doi.org/10.3843/SusDev.15.5:1

Hill, J. L., & Hill, R. A. (2011). Ecotourism in Amazonian Peru: Uniting tourism, conservation and community development. Geography, Vol 96 Part 2.

Honey, M. (2008). Ecotourism and Sustainable Development Who Owns Paradise ? (Second Edition). Island Press.

Hummel, J. (1994). Ecotourism Development in Protected Areas of Developing Countries. World Leisure & Recreation, 36(2), 17–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/10261133.1994.9673909

Hunt, C. A., & Stronza, A. (2009). Bringing ecotourism into focus: Applying a hierarchical perspective to ecotourism research. Journal of Ecotourism, 8(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040802283202

Jamal, T., & Stronza, A. (2009). ‘Dwelling’ with ecotourism in the Peruvian Amazon Cultural relationships in local–global spaces. Tourist Studies, 8(3), 313–335. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 1468797608100593

Jones, S. (2005). Community-Based Ecotorism The Significance of Social Capital. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(2), 303–324.

Karst, H. (2017). “This is a holy place of Ama Jomo”: Buen vivir, indigenous voices and ecotourism development in a protected area of Bhutan. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(6), 746–762. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2016.1236802

Kayat, K. (2002). Exploring factors influencing individual participation in community‐based tourism: The case of Kampung relau homestay program, Malaysia. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 7(2).

K.C., A., Rijal, K., & Sapkota, R. P. (2015). Role of ecotourism in environmental conservation and socioeconomic development in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 22(3), 251–258. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2015.1005721

Kim, M., Xie, Y., & Cirella, G. T. (2019). Sustainable Transformative Economy: Community-Based Ecotourism. Sustainability, 11(18). https://doi.org/10.3390/su11184977

Kiss, A. (2004). Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19(5), 232–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2004.03.010

Kline, C. S., & Slocum, S. L. (2015). Neoliberalism in ecotourism The new development paradigm of multinational projects in Africa.pdf. Journal of Ecotourism.

Kolbe, R. H., & Burnett, M. S. (1991). Content-Analysis Research: An Examination of Applications with Directives for Improving Research Reliability and Objectivity. Journal of Consumer Research, 18(2), 243–250.

Koninx, F. (2019). Ecotourism and rewilding: The case of Swedish Lapland. Journal of Ecotourism, 18(4), 332–347. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2018.1538227

Kontogeorgopoulos, N. (2005). Community-Based Ecotourism in Phuket and Ao Phangnga, Thailand: Partial Victories and Bittersweet Remedies. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 13(1), 4–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501220508668470

Krüger, O. (2005). The role of ecotourism in conservation: Panacea or Pandora’s box? Biodiversity and Conservation, 14(3), 579–600. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-004-3917-4

Li, W. (2006). COMMUNITY DECISIONMAKING Participation in Development. Annals of Tourism Research, 33, 132–143.

Liu, C., Li, J., & Pechacek, P. (2013). Current trends of ecotourism in China’s nature reserves: A review of the Chinese literature. Tourism Management Perspectives, 7, 16–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2013.03.001

Liu, J., Qu, H., Huang, D., Chen, G., Yue, X., Zhao, X., & Liang, Z. (2014). The role of social capital in encouraging residents’ pro-environmental behaviors in community-based ecotourism. Tourism Management, 41, 190–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2013.08.016

Ma, B., & Wen, Y. (2019). Community Participation and Preferences Regarding Conservation and Development Policies in China’s Giant Panda Nature Reserves. Sustainability, 11(18).

Malhotra, N. K., & Birks, D. F. (2007). Marketing research: An applied approach (3. edition). Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Mensah, I. (2017). Benefits and Challenges of Community-Based Ecotourism in Park Fringe Communities: The Case of Mesomagor of Kakum National Park, Ghana. Tourism Review International, 21, 81–98.

Mensah, I., & Ernest, A. (2013). Community Participation in Ecotourism: The Case of Bobiri Forest Reserve and Butterfly Sanctuary in Ashanti Region of Ghana. American Journal of Tourism Management, 34–42. https://doi.org/10.5923/s.tourism.201304.04

Mgonja, J. T., Sirima, A., & Mkumbo, P. J. (2015). A review of ecotourism in Tanzania: Magnitude, challenges, and prospects for sustainability. Journal of Ecotourism, 14(2–3), 264–277. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2015.1114623

Morais, D. B., Zhu, C., Dong, E., & Yang, G. (2006). Promoting Sustainability Through Increased Community Involvement: The Shangri-La Ecotourism Demonstration Project. Tourism Review International, 10(3), 131–140. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427206779307187

Mowforth, M., & Munt, I. (2016). Tourism and sustainability (Fourth edition). Routledge.

Nault, S., & Stapleton, P. (2011). The community participation process in ecotourism development: A case study of the community of Sogoog, Bayan-Ulgii, Mongolia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(6), 695–712. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2010.536240

Noh, M., A, R., A. R., Z., M., M., N., N., M., & B, I. (2020). Future Community-Based Ecotourism (Cbet) Development—Palarch’s Journal Of Archaeology Of Egypt/Egyptology. Palarch’s Journal Of Archaeology Of Egypt/Egyptology, 17, 15.

Ocampo, L., Ebisa, J. A., Ombe, J., & Escoto, M. G. (2018). Sustainable ecotourism indicators with fuzzy Delphi method – A Philippine perspective. Ecological Indicators, 874–888.

Ogunjinmi, A. A., & Braimoh, C. O. (2018). Assessment of community awareness and participation in ecotourism in Old Oyo National Park, Nigeria. Environmental & Socio-Economic Studies.

Okazaki, E. (2008). A Community-Based Tourism Model: Its Conception and Use. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(5), 511–529. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580802159594

Osman, T., Shaw, D., & Kenawy, E. (2018). Examining the extent to which stakeholder collaboration during ecotourism planning processes could be applied within an Egyptian context. Land Use Policy, 126–137.

Palmer, N. J., & Chuamuangphan, N. (2018). Governance and local participation in ecotourism: Community-level ecotourism stakeholders in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. Journal of Ecotourism, 17(3), 320–337. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2018.1502248

Panta, S. K., & Thapa, B. (2018). Entrepreneurship and women’s empowerment in gateway communities of Bardia National Park, Nepal. Journal of Ecotourism, 17(1), 20–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2017.1299743

Place, S. (1995). Ecotourism for Sustainable Development: Oxymoron or Plausible Strategy? GeoJournal, 35(2,), 161–173.

Rajamanicam, H., Mohanty, P., & Chandran, A. (2018). Assessing the Responsible Tourism Practices for Sustainable Development—An Empirical Inquiry of Yelagiri, Tamil Nadu. 13(2), 29.

Ramos, A. M., & Prideaux, B. (2014). Indigenous ecotourism in the Mayan rainforest of Palenque: Empowerment issues in sustainable development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 22(3), 461–479. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2013.828730

Reimer, J. K. (Kila), & Walter, P. (2013). How do you know it when you see it? Community-based ecotourism in the Cardamom Mountains of southwestern Cambodia. Tourism Management, 34, 122–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.04.002

Ross, S., & Wall, G. (1999). Ecotourism: Towards congruence between theory and practice. Tourism Management, 20(1), 123–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(98)00098-3

Sakata, H., & Prideaux, B. (2013). An alternative approach to community-based ecotourism: A bottom-up locally initiated non-monetised project in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(6), 880–899. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2012.756493

Sanjay K. Nepal. (2000). TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS The Nepalese Himalaya. Annals of Tourism Research, 27.

Schellhorn, M. (2010). Development for whom? Social justice and the business of ecotourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18.

Scheyvens, R. (1999). Ecotourism and the empowerment of local communities. Tourism Management, 20(2), 245–249. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(98)00069-7

Scheyvens, R. (2000). Promoting Women’s Empowerment Through Involvement in Ecotourism: Experiences from the Third World. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8(3), 232–249. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580008667360

Simpson, M. C. (2008). Community Benefit Tourism Initiatives—A conceptual oxymoron? Tourism Management.

Snyman, S. (2014). Partnership between a private sector ecotourism operator and a local community in the Okavango Delta, Botswana: The case of the Okavango Community Trust and Wilderness Safaris. Journal of Ecotourism, 13(2–3), 110–127. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2014.980744

Sonjai, N. P., Bushell, R., Hawkins, M., & Staiff, R. (2018). Community-based ecotourism: Beyond authenticity and the commodification of local people. Journal of Ecotourism, 17(3), 252–267.

Southgate, C. R. J. (2006). Ecotourism in Kenya: The Vulnerability of Communities. Journal of Ecotourism, 5(1–2), 80–96. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040608668448

Stem, C. J., Lassoie, J. P., Lee, D. R., Deshler, D. D., & Scelhas, J. W. (2003). Community Participation in Ecotourism Benefits: The Link to Conservation Practices and Perspectives. Society &Natural Resources. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920309177

Stone, L. S., & Stone, T. M. (2011). Community-based tourism enterprises: Challenges and prospects for community participation; Khama Rhino Sanctuary Trust, Botswana. Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Stone, M. T. (2015). Community-based ecotourism: A collaborative partnerships perspective. Journal of Ecotourism, 14(2–3), 166–184. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2015.1023309

Stone, M., & Wall, G. (2004). Ecotourism and Community Development: Case Studies from Hainan, China. Environmental Management, 33(1), 12–24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-003-3029-z

Stronza, A. (2001). Anthropology of Tourism: Forging New Ground for Ecotourism and Other Alternatives. Annual Review of Anthropology, 30(1), 261–283. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.30.1.261

Stronza, A. (2005). Hosts and Hosts: The Anthropology of Community -Based Ecotourism in the Peruvian Amazon. NAPA Bulletin, 23(1), 170–190. https://doi.org/10.1525/napa.2005.23.1.170

Stronza, A., & Gordillo, J. (2008). Community views of ecotourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(2), 448–468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2008.01.002

Stronza, A., & Pegas, F. (2008). Ecotourism and Conservation: Two Cases from Brazil and Peru. Human Dimensions of Wildlife,. https://doi.org/10.1080/10871200802187097

Su, M. M., Wall, G., & Ma, Z. (2014). Assessing Ecotourism from a Multi-stakeholder Perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China. Environmental Management, 54(5), 1190–1207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-014-0360-5

Swain, S. K., & Batabyal, D. (2016). Sustainable Livelihood and Its Diversification through Community Based Ecotourism at Pichavaram and Surroundings: An Investigative Study. 9, 17.

Swain, S. K., Parida, B. B., & Bagri, S. C. (2008). Community Participation and Visitor Satisfaction for Ecotourism Development in Similipal National Park, Orissa. Atna - Journal of Tourism Studies, 3(1), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.12727/ajts.3.1

Taylor, M. (2007). Community Participation in the Real World: Opportunities and Pitfalls in New Governance Spaces. Urban Studies, 44(2), 297–317. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420980601074987

Tosun, C. (1999). Towards a Typology of Community Participation in the Tourism Development Process. Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10, 113–134.

Tosun, C. (2000). Limits to community participation in the tourism development process in developing countries. Tourism Management, 21(6), 613–633. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00009-1

Tsaur, S.-H., Lin, Y.-C., & Lin, J.-H. (2006). Evaluating ecotourism sustainability from the integrated perspective of resource, community and tourism. Tourism Management, 27(4), 640–653. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.02.006

Vannelli, K., Hampton, M. P., Namgail, T., & Black, S. A. (2019). Community participation in ecotourism and its effect on local perceptions of snow leopard ( Panthera uncia ) conservation. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 24(2), 180–193. https://doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2019.1563929

Walter, P. (2011). Gender Analysis in Community-based Ecotourism. Tourism Recreation Research, 36(2), 159–168. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2011.11081316

Weaver, D. (2002). Asian ecotourism: Patterns and themes. Tourism Geographies, 153–172. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616680210124936

Weaver, D. B. (2005). Comprehensive and Minimalist Dimensions of Ecotourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(2), 439–455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2004.08.003

Weaver, D. B., & Lawton, L. J. (2007). Twenty years on: The state of contemporary ecotourism research. Tourism Management, 28(5), 1168–1179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.03.004

Wondirad, A. (2017). Who benefits from the ecotourism sector in Southern Ethiopia? International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 17(4), 276–297. https://doi.org/10.1080/15980634.2017.1384133

World Ecotourism Summit – Final Report. (2002). World Ecotourism Summit, Madrid. World Tourism Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme.

Wu, Y.-Y., Wang, H.-L., & Ho, Y.-F. (2010). Urban ecotourism: Defining and assessing dimensions using fuzzy number construction. Tourism Management.

Downloads

Published

2021-10-21

How to Cite

Hasana, U., Swain, S. K., & George, B. (2021). Management of Ecological Resources for Sustainable Tourism: A Systematic Review on Community Participation in Ecotourism Literature. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 7(1), e0269. https://doi.org/10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i1.269