Job Resource and Job Performance Among Physicians in the Jordanian Health Sector: The mediating role of Job satisfaction
Keywords:Job resources, Job satisfaction, Job performance, Physicians, Jordan
Purpose: Individuals, groups, and organizations are all affected by job performance. Many challenges face the organization such as job performance across the globe as well as in Jordan. The present study aims to investigate how job resources affect a hospital physician’s performance, as well as the role of job satisfaction in mediating these relationships.
Theoretical framework: The key idea behind this research will be the focus on job demands-resources theory (JD-R). However, a lack of studies that explore the JDR, and job performance in the Jordan context.
methodology: The information was gathered through a questionnaire of 346 physicians who work at Jordan's Ministry of Health. In this paper, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess and evaluate the offered hypotheses.
Findings: The study found that five core elements of job resources (skill variety, task identity, performance feedback, autonomy, and job security) have a significant positive correlation with job satisfaction, while one core element (task significance) was insignificant. Furthermore, job resources were shown to have a significant indirect relationship with job performance, with job satisfaction acting as a mediator.
Research, Practical & Social implications: The findings of this paper show that the JDR can accurately forecast physicians. The findings can be used as a foundation for future research in this field. The findings of the study will help the Jordanian government design policies to support and encourage physicians in the current work environment.
Originality: This paper is a ground-breaking effort to see if job demands resources may be used as a theoretical framework to predict physician performance.
Ahmed, A. S. (2012). 318 Verbal and physical abuse against Jordanian nurses in the work environment. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 18(4), 318–324. https://doi.org/10.26719/2012.18.4.318
Al-Omari, K., & Okasheh, H. (2017). The influence of work environment on job performance: A case study of engineering company in Jordan. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 12(24), 15544–15550. http://www.ripublication.com
Al-Shiyab, A. A., & Ababneh, R. I. (2018). Consequences of workplace violence behaviors in Jordanian public hospitals. Employee Relations, 40(3), 515–528. https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-02-2017-0043
Alfuqaha, O., & Alshra’ah, H. (2018). Burnout among nurses and teachers in Jordan: a comparative study. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 20(2), 55–65. https://doi.org/10.12740/APP/80168
Al Qadire, M., & Alkhalaileh, M. (2017). Determinants of public satisfaction and perception of national healthcare services availability in Jordan: A patient survey. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, 20(5), 1-10. DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/31529
Ali, N., & Zia-ur-Rehman, M. (2014). Impact of Job Design on Employee Performance, Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction: A Study of FMCG’s Sector in Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v9n2p70
Ali, S. A. M., Said, N. A., Yunus, N. M., Kader, S. F. A., Latif, D. S. A., & Munap, R. (2014). Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model to Job Satisfaction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 129, 46–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.646
Andrew, L., Haris, N., Zakariah, H., & Zekaria, N. (2016). Job Characteristics and Job Satisfaction Among Employees: A Case Study At Craun Research Sdn. Bhd., Kuching, Sarawak. International Academic Research Journal of Business and Technology, 2(2), 165–171.
Aziri, B. (2011). Job satisfaction: A literature review. Management Research & Practice, 3(4). http://mrp.ase.ro/no34/f7.pdf
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands‐resources model: State of the art. Journal of managerial psychology.https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940710733115
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2014). Job demands–resources theory. Wellbeing: A complete reference guide, 1-28. DOI: 10.1002/9781118539415.wbwell019
Bakker, A., & Demerouti, E. (2017). Job demands-resources theory: Taking stock and looking forward. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(3), 273–285. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000056
Beehr, T. A., Jex, S. M., Stacy, B. A., & Murray, M. A. (2000). Work stressors and coworker support as predictors of individual strain and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(4), 391–405. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(200006)21:4<391::AID-JOB15>3.0.CO;2-9
Bronkhorst, B. (2015). Behaving safely under pressure: The effects of job demands, resources, and safety climate on employee physical and psychosocial safety behavior. Journal of Safety Research, 55, 63–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2015.09.002
Buitendach, J., De Witte, H., Leuven, K. U., Buitendach, J. H., & De Witte, H. (2005). Job insecurity, extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction and affective organisational commitment of maintenance workers in a parastatal. South African Journal of Business Management, 36(2), 27–37. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajbm.v36i2.625
Campbell, J. P., McHenry, J. J., & Wise, L. L. (1990). Modeling job performance in a population of jobs. Personnel psychology, 43(2), 313-575. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1990.tb01561.x
Carrión, G. C., Nitzl, C., & Roldán, J. L. (2017). Mediation analyses in partial least squares structural equation modeling: Guidelines and empirical examples. In Partial least squares path modeling (pp. 173-195). Springer, Cham. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-64069-3_8
Carlos, V. S., & Rodrigues, R. G. (2016). Development and Validation of a Self-Reported Measure of Job Performance. Social Indicators Research, 126(1), 279–307. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-015-0883-z
Chandraiah, K., Agrawal, S. C., Marimuthu, P., & Manoharan, N. (2003). Occupational stress and job satisfaction among managers. Indian Journal of occupational and Environmental medicine, 7(2), 6.
Christen, M., Iyer, G., Soberman, D., Anderson, E., Mitchell, A., Russell, G., & Staelin, R. (2006). Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, and Effort: A Reexamination Using Agency Theory. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 137–150. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.70.1.137.qxd
Coleman, V. I., & Borman, W. C. (2000). Investigating the Underlying Structure of the Citizenship Performance Domain. Human Resource Management Review, 10(1), 25–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(99)00037-6
Darawad, M. W., Al-Hussami, M., Saleh, A. M., Mustafa, W. M., & Odeh, H. (2015). Violence against nurses in emergency departments in Jordan: Nurses’ perspective. Workplace Health and Safety, 63(1), 9–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/2165079914565348
De Cuyper, N., & De Witte, H. (2006). Autonomy and workload among temporary workers: Their effects on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, life satisfaction, and self-rated performance. International Journal of Stress Management, 13(4), 441–459. https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.13.4.441
Demerouti, E., Nachreiner, F., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499–512. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.499
Desrumaux, P., Lapointe, D., Ntsame Sima, M., Boudrias, J. S., Savoie, A., & Brunet, L. (2015). The impact of job demands, climate, and optimism on well-being and distress at work: What are the mediating effects of basic psychological need satisfaction? Revue Europeenne de Psychologie Appliquee, 65(4), 179–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2015.06.003
Dwyer, D. J., & Ganster, D. C. (1991). The effects of job demands and control on employee attendance and satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12(7), 595–608. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030120704
Faragher, E. B., Cass, M., & Cooper, C. L. (2005). The relationship between job satisfaction and health: A meta-analysis. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 62(2), 105–112. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2002.006734
Ferreira, A. I., Martinez, L. F., Lamelas, J. P., & Rodrigues, R. I. (2017). Mediation of job embeddedness and satisfaction in the relationship between task characteristics and turnover: A multilevel study in Portuguese hotels. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. DOI: 10.1108/IJCHM-03-2015-0126
Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Peter Airasian. (2012). Competencies for Analysis and Applications 10th Edition. In Pearson Education, Inc.
Greenslade, J. H., & Jimmieson, N. L. (2007). Distinguishing between task and contextual performance for nurses: development of a job performance scale. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 58(6), 602–611. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04256.x
Grigsby, M. A. A. (2013). Testing the job demands-Resources model in a workplace health promotion context (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia).
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(2), 159–170. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0076546
Hair, Hult, G., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). In Sage publications.
Inuwa, M. (2016). Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance: An Empirical Approach. The Millennium University Journal, 1(1).
Jacobs, K., Hellman, M., Wuest, E., & Markowitz, J. (2013). Job performance. Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine, 1132-1133.
Kayastha, D. P., & Kayastha, R. (2012). A study of occupational stress on job satisfaction among teachers with particular reference to corporate, higher secondary school of Nepal: Empirical study. Asian journal of management sciences and education, 1(2), 52-62.
Khatatbeh, M., Alkhaldi, S., Al-Omari, O., & Khader, Y. (2015). Factors impact on turnover of physicians in rural Jordan. Health Systems and Policy Research, 2(1), 1–5.
Koopmans, L., Bernaards, C. M., Hildebrandt, V. H., Schaufeli, W. B., de Vet, H. C., & van der Beek, A. J. (2011). Conceptual frameworks of individual work performance: A systematic review. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 856-866.https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e318226a763
Lawler, E. E., & Porter, L. W. (1967). The Effect of Performance on Job Satisfaction. Industrial Relations. A Journal of Economy and Society, 7(1), 20–28.
Locke, E. A. (1969). What is job satisfaction? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4(4), 309–336. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073(69)90013-0
Malik, M. I., Safwan, M. N., & Sindhu, A. G. (2011). Examining stress, job satisfaction and customer satisfaction in a transport company (A case from Pakistan ). International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(18), 81–85.
McCloy, R. A., Campbell, J. P., & Cudeck, R. (1994). A Confirmatory Test of a Model of Performance Determinants. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(4), 493–505. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.4.493
Mira, M. S., Choong, Y. V., & Thim, C. K. (2019). The effect of HRM practices and employees’ job satisfaction on employee performance. Management Science Letters, 9(6), 771–786. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2019.3.011
Motowidlo, S. J., & Borman, W. C. (2000). Contextual Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Human Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(99)00035-2
Motowildo, S. J., Borman, W. C., & Schmit, M. J. (1997). A Theory of Individual Differences in Task and Contextual Performance. Human Performance, 10(2), 71–83. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002_1
Nadhir, N. H. M., & Puteh, F. (2017). Impact assessment of job characteristics model on employee engagement. E-Academia Journal, 6(1). https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/JeA/article/view/2222.
Nahrgang, J. D., Morgeson, F. P., & Hofmann, D. A. (2011). Safety at Work: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Link Between Job Demands, Job Resources, Burnout, Engagement, and Safety Outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(1), 71–94. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021484
Nakagawa, Y., Inoue, A., Kawakami, N., Tsuno, K., Tomioka, K., Nakanishi, M., ... & Hiro, H. (2014). Job demands, job resources, and job performance in Japanese workers: A cross-sectional study. Industrial health. https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2014-0036
Nielsen, K., Nielsen, M. B., Ogbonnaya, C., Känsälä, M., Saari, E., & Isaksson, K. (2017). Workplace resources to improve both employee well-being and performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Work & Stress, 31(2), 101-120. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2017.1304463
Petty, M. M., McGee, G. W., & Cavender, J. W. (1984). A Meta-Analysis of the Relationships Between Individual Job Satisfaction and Individual Performance. Academy of Management Review, 9(4), 712–721. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1984.4277608
Pradhan, R. K., & Jena, L. K. (2017). Employee Performance at Workplace: Conceptual Model and Empirical Validation. Business Perspectives and Research, 5(1), 69–85. https://doi.org/10.1177/2278533716671630
Price, T., Brennan, N., Cleland, J., Prescott-Clements, L., Wanner, A., Withers, L., ... & Archer, J. (2018). Remediating doctors’ performance to restore patient safety: a realist review protocol. BMJ open, 8(10), e025943. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025943
Rehman, M. U., Irum, R., Tahir, N., Ijaz, Z., Noor, U., & Slama, U. (2014). The Impact of Job Stress on Employee Job Satisfaction A Study on Telecommunication Sector of Pakistan. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 2(3), 50–56. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5922.2007.00690.x
Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., Mitchell, R., & Gudergan, S. P. (2020). Partial least squares structural equation modeling in HRM research. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31(12), 1617-1643. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05542-8_15-2
Rothmann, S., Mostrt, K., & Strydom, M. (2006). A Psychometric Evaluation of the JDRS in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 32(4). https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC89107
Said, N. A., & Munap, R. (2010). Job characteristics and job satisfaction: A relationship study on supervisors performance. 5th IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology, ICMIT2010, 714–719. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICMIT.2010.5492732
Schaufeli, W. B. (2015). Engaging leadership in the job demands-resources model. Career Development International, 20(5), 446–463. https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-02-2015-0025
Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2014). A critical review of the job demands-resources model: Implications for improving work and health. Bridging occupational, organizational and public health, 43-68.https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5640-3-4
Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods: A Skill Building Approach. http://www.wiley.com/college
Sonnentag, S., Volmer, J., & Spychala, A. (2008). Job performance. The Sage handbook of organizational behavior, 1, 427-447. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849200448.n24
Streukens, S., & Leroi-Werelds, S. (2016). Bootstrapping and PLS-SEM: A step-by-step guide to get more out of your bootstrap results. European Management Journal, 34(6), 618–632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2016.06.003
Umrani, W. A., Afsar, B., Khan, M., & Ahmed, U. (2019). Addressing the issue of job performance among hospital physicians in Pakistan: The role of job security, organizational support, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 24(3), e12169. https://doi.org/10.1111/jabr.12169
Van Wingerden, J., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2016). A test of a job demands-resources intervention. Journal of Managerial Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-03-2014-0086
Van Wingerden, J., Derks, D., & Bakker, A. B. (2018). Facilitating interns’ performance: The role of job resources, basic need satisfaction and work engagement. Career Development International, 23(4), 382–396. https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-12-2017-0237
Weiss, H. M., & Merlo, K. L. (2015). Job Satisfaction. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 833–838. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.22029-1
Wingerden, J. van, Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2016). A test of a job demands-resources intervention. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(3), 686–701. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-03-2014-0086
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Samer Qaralleh
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms: the author(s) authorize(s) the publication of the text in the journal;
The author(s) ensure(s) that the contribution is original and unpublished and that it is not in the process of evaluation by another journal;
The journal is not responsible for the views, ideas and concepts presented in articles, and these are the sole responsibility of the author(s);
The publishers reserve the right to make textual adjustments and adapt texts to meet with publication standards.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right to first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Atribuição NãoComercial 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which allows the work to be shared with recognized authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are allowed to assume additional contracts separately, for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (e.g. publish in institutional repository or as a book chapter), with recognition of authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are allowed and are encouraged to publish and distribute their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on a personal web page) at any point before or during the editorial process, as this can generate positive effects, as well as increase the impact and citations of the published work (see the effect of Free Access) at http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html