Organizational Commitment and Employees Turnover Intention in Saudi Public Sector: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction and Work Environemnt




Organizational Commitment, Employees, Turnover Intention, Job Satisfaction, Work Environment


Purpose:  Organisational commitment is critical to an organization's success and growth. It leads to increased job satisfaction, lower turnover, improved performance, a more positive organisational culture, and increased customer satisfaction. This research tries to highlight the relationship between organizational commitment and turnover intention taking into account the mediation role of job satisfaction and work environment.


Theoretical framework:  Organizational commitment is very crucial in today working environment. Employees are more likely to be inspired and dedicated to their work when they feel committed to their organisation.(Freudenberger, 1974) .This results in increased productivity and performance. Furthermore, organizational commitment is important in employee retention. Employees that are committed to their company are less inclined to depart for other chances(Mathieu, Fabi, Lacoursiere, & Raymond, 2016). This lowers turnover rates and the costs associated with hiring and training new personnel.


Methodology: This is a quantitative study that employed a structured questionnaire design. This study's sample consists of 193 public officers from the Saudi public sector in the western region who were chosen at randomly. Raw data gathered via mail questionnaires. The data collected was analyzed by SmartPLS 3 to test the study's hypotheses.


Findings:  Finding of this study indicates that organizational commitment has a substantial and statistically significant influence on Job Satisfaction (β = 0.601, t = 8.580, p = .001), and turnover intention (β = -0.363, t = 4.737, p = .001). In addition, the work environment and job satisfaction show mediation role in the relationship between organizational commitment and turnover intention.


Research, Practical & Social implications:  Managers at the public organizations need to apply different strategies to enhance the overall job satisfaction like giving employees a voice and involving them in problem-solving. This make them feel valued and motivated. Such practice can lead to create a conducive working environment where few people decide to quit. Employees that are committed to their organisation are more inclined to put in extra effort and go the extra mile. It is highly recommended to adopt high-performance working environment. This requires an updated human resource management techniques and practices.


Originality/Value:  The findings of this study indicates that ORC has a substantial and statistically significant influence on Job Satisfaction, working environment, and turnover intention. This study also finds the work environment and job satisfaction are significantly mediated the relationship between organizational commitment and turnover intention. This contributes to the current literature especially in the public organizations studies.


Download data is not yet available.


Aldabbas, H., Pinnington, A., & Lahrech, A. (2023). The influence of perceived organizational support on employee creativity: The mediating role of work engagement. Current Psychology, 42(8), 6501-6515.

Alfalla-Luque, R., Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Medina-Lopez, C. (2015). An analysis of the direct and mediated effects of employee commitment and supply chain integration on organisational performance. International Journal of Production Economics, 162, 242-257.

Amah, O. E. (2009). Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention Relationship: The Moderating Effect of Job Role Centrality and Life Satisfaction. Research & Practice in Human Resource Management, 17(1).

Astuti, E. D., Safitri, K., Setrojoyo, S. M., & Wibowo, T. S. (2023). Effect of Transformational Leadership, Job Satisfaction, and Interpersonal Communication on Organizational Citizenship Behavior with Organizational Commitment as Mediation Variable at the Tax Office. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 8(7), e02634-e02634.

Baernholdt, M., & Mark, B. A. (2009). The nurse work environment, job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units. Journal of nursing management, 17(8), 994-1001.

Bright, L. (2008). Does public service motivation really make a difference on the job satisfaction and turnover intentions of public employees? The American review of public administration, 38(2), 149-166.

Briones Peñalver, A. J., Bernal Conesa, J. A., & de Nieves Nieto, C. (2018). Analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility in Spanish Agribusiness and Its Influence on Innovation and Performance. 25(2), 182-193. doi:

Chiang, C.-F., & Hsieh, T.-S. (2012). The impacts of perceived organizational support and psychological empowerment on job performance: The mediating effects of organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 180-190.

Cho, Y. J., & Lewis, G. B. (2012). Turnover intention and turnover behavior: Implications for retaining federal employees. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 32(1), 4-23.

Currivan, D. B. (1999). The causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in models of employee turnover. Human resource management review, 9(4), 495-524.

Espasandín-Bustelo, F., Ganaza-Vargas, J., & Diaz-Carrion, R. (2021). Employee happiness and corporate social responsibility: The role of organizational culture. Employee Relations: The International Journal, 43(3), 609-629.

Falk, R. F., & Miller, N. B. (1992). A primer for soft modeling: University of Akron Press.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). Staff burn‐out. Journal of Social Issues, 30(1), 159-165.

Fulmore, J. A., Fulmore, A. L., Mull, M., & Cooper, J. N. (2023). Reducing employee turnover intentions in the service sector: The connection between human resource development practices and employee engagement. Human resource development quarterly, 34(2), 127-153.

Gajić, T., Petrović, M. D., Radovanović, M. M., Vuković, D., Dimitrovski, D., & Yakovenko, N. V. (2021). Women’s role in organizational commitment and job satisfaction in the travel industry—an evidence from the urban setting. Sustainability, 13(15), 8395.

Giffords, E. D. (2009). An examination of organizational commitment and professional commitment and the relationship to work environment, demographic and organizational factors. Journal of Social Work, 9(4), 386-404.

Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of management, 26(3), 463-488.

Hair, J., Hult, G. T., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): SAGE Publications, Incorporated.

Hair, J. F., Black, Babin, & Anderson. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Gudergan, S. P. (2017). Advanced issues in partial least squares structural equation modeling: Sage publications, London.

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2021). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): Sage publications.

Hanaysha, J. (2016). Testing the effects of employee engagement, work environment, and organizational learning on organizational commitment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 289-297.

Harini, S., Luddin, M. R., & Hamidah, H. (2019). Work life balance, job satisfaction, work engagement and organizational commitment among lecturers. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

Huselid, M. A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of management journal, 38(3), 635-672.

Jernigan, I., Beggs, J. M., & Kohut, G. F. (2002). Dimensions of work satisfaction as predictors of commitment type. Journal of managerial psychology, 17(7), 564-579.

Khan, M., Mahmood, A., & Shoaib, M. (2022). Role of ethical leadership in improving employee outcomes through the work environment, work-life quality and ICT skills: A setting of China-Pakistan economic corridor. Sustainability, 14(17), 11055.

Kumari, N., & Rachna, M. (2011). Job Satisfaction of the Employees at the Workplace. European Journal of Business and management, 3(4), 11-30.

Kustiawan, U., Marpaung, P., Lestari, U. D., & Andiyana, E. (2022). The effect of affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and employee engagement on job happiness and job performance on manufacturing company in Indonesia. WSEAS Transactions on Business and Economics, 19(52), 573-591.

Lambert, E. G., Hogan, N. L., & Barton, S. M. (2001). The impact of job satisfaction on turnover intent: a test of a structural measurement model using a national sample of workers. The Social Science Journal, 38(2), 233-250.

Lee, M., & Kim, B. (2023). Effect of the Employees’ Mental Toughness on Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction: Mediating Psychological Well-Being. Administrative Sciences, 13(5), 133.

Lee, T. W., & Mowday, R. T. (1987). Voluntarily leaving an organization: An empirical investigation of Steers and Mowday's model of turnover. Academy of management journal, 30(4), 721-743.

Leite, N. R. P., Rodrigues, A. C. d. A., & Albuquerque, L. G. d. (2014). Organizational commitment and job satisfaction: what are the potential relationships? BAR-Brazilian Administration Review, 11, 476-495.

Locke, E. A. (1968). Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organizational behavior and human performance, 3(2), 157-189.

Mahboub, A., Charghaoui, S., Ngandu, J., Belkadi, L., Touiri, H. A. F., Mabrouki, E., . . . Achour, F. Z. (2023). The Impact of Knowledge Management Practices on Job Satisfaction of Moroccan Employees: Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 8(8), e02768-e02768.

Mathieu, C., Fabi, B., Lacoursiere, R., & Raymond, L. (2016). The role of supervisory behavior, job satisfaction and organizational commitment on employee turnover. Journal of Management & Organization, 22(1), 113-129.

McDonald, D. J., & Makin, P. J. (2000). The psychological contract, organisational commitment and job satisfaction of temporary staff. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21(2), 84-91.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. (2001). Organizational commitment. Personnel psychology and human resource management: A reader for students and practitioners, 289-342.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1), 61-89.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (2004). TCM employee commitment survey academic users guide 2004. London, Ontario, Canada: The University of Western Ontario, Department of Psychology, 143-159.

Mowday, R. T. (1998). Reflections on the study and relevance of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 8(4), 387-401.

Nagar, K. (2012). Organizational commitment and job satisfaction among teachers during times of burnout. Vikalpa, 37(2), 43-60.

Pinnington, A., Mir, F. A., & Ai, Z. (2023). The significance of general skills training for early career graduates: relationships with perceived organizational support, job satisfaction and turnover intention. European journal of training and development.

Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of applied psychology, 59(5), 603.

Qureshi, M. I., Iftikhar, M., Abbas, S. G., Hassan, U., Khan, K., & Zaman, K. (2013). Relationship between job stress, workload, environment and employees turnover intentions: What we know, what should we know. World Applied Sciences Journal, 23(6), 764-770.

Radey, M., & Wilke, D. J. (2023). The importance of job demands and supports: Promoting retention among child welfare workers. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 40(1), 57-69.

Ritter, D. (2011). The relationship between healthy work environments and retention of nurses in a hospital setting. Journal of nursing management, 19(1), 27-32.

Rose, M. (2001). Disparate measures in the workplace... Quantifying overall job satisfaction. Paper presented at the BHPS Research Conference, Colchester.

Shuck, B., Twyford, D., Reio Jr, T. G., & Shuck, A. (2014). Human resource development practices and employee engagement: Examining the connection with employee turnover intentions. Human resource development quarterly, 25(2), 239-270.

Suhartono, S., Sulastiningsih, S., Chasanah, U., Widiastuti, N., & Purwanto, W. (2023). The Relationship of Leadership, Discipline, Satisfaction, and Performance: A Case Study of Steel Manufacture in Indonesia. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 8(2), e01146-e01146.

Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: path analyses based on meta‐analytic findings. Personnel psychology, 46(2), 259-293.

Weitz, J. (1952). A neglected concept in the study of job satisfaction. Personnel psychology.




How to Cite

Elrayah, M., & Mabkhot, H. (2023). Organizational Commitment and Employees Turnover Intention in Saudi Public Sector: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction and Work Environemnt. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 8(10), e03788.