Performance Appraisal, Employees' Evaluation, Employee Performance, Organizational Effectiveness, Human Resource Management, Kuwaiti Workforce


Purpose: Performance appraisal systems have become a crucial tool for organizations in evaluating and maximizing the effectiveness of their employees. It is the main goal of this study to find out how well the employees' performance appraisal system for employees works in Kuwait, paying special attention to how employees and managers feel about it in both private and public sectors.


Theoretical Framework: Performance appraisal systems play a critical role in enhancing organizational performance, employee development, and overall job satisfaction. However, the effectiveness of such systems can vary based on organizational cultures, contextual factors, and the alignment of appraisal practices with local norms. A literature review was a vital step, it established a foundation for this study and guides its design, implementation, and interpretation.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The study employs a mixed-methods approach, combining quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews to gather insights from a diverse sample of employees and managers across various institutions in Kuwait in both of its sectors. The research design allows for the collection of both quantitative data, offering statistical trends and patterns, and qualitative data, providing nuanced perspectives and in-depth understanding.

Findings: Findings reveals a moderate level of agreement, satisfaction, or endorsement of the performance appraisal system in their organizations. Results also demonstrate significant differences between respondents from government and private sectors, in favor of private.

Originality/Value: This research also shed lights on the strengths and areas requiring improvement in such systems which is valuable insights for organizations looking to improve their performance management processes, leading to improved employee performance, engagement, and decision-making.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdulkader Mohamad, R., Abdul Rahim, N., & Mohamad, S. (2022). Validity and reliability of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding exercise and exergames experiences questionnaire among high school students. BMC Public Health 22, 1743.

Abdullah, Z., & Malik, S. (2022). Perceived appraisal fairness effect on performance appraisal effectiveness and appraisal satisfaction in higher education. Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies, 8(2).

Afriyie, M. (2009). The Influence Of Planning Activity On Employee Performance Review. Evanston, IL: Unpublished Dissertation.

Alainati, S. (2015). Factors affecting individuals’ competency in organisations using knowledge creation model and HRM practices. Doctoral dissertation. London, UK: Brunel University.

Alainati, S. (2021B). Towards a Coprehensive Knowledge Management-Competency Model. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 23(11), 11-23.

Alainati, S. (2021C). Instructors’ Competency Model During COVID-19 Crisis: Human Resource Management Perspective. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 23(10), er. II, 29-39.

Alainati, S. (2024 A). Enhancing Human Capital: A Case Study of Kuwait’s Educational System and Twenty-First Century Skills. The International Journal of Business & Management, 12(1). Retrieved from

Alainati, S. (2024 B). The Role of Educational Systems in Developing the Twenty-First Century Skills: Perspectives and Initiatives of Gulf Cooperation Council Countries. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN:2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 26, Issue 1. Ser. 3 (January. 2024), 44-57.

Alainati, S. J. (2021A). Towards an Effective Competency-based Education and Training Model. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM). Volume 23, Issue 11. Ser. I (November. 2021), 31-40.

Alainati, S., Al-Hammad, F., & Alhajri, R. (2023A). Instructors’ Perceptions, Motivations, and Competences in e-Learning: The Case of College of Business Studies – Kuwait. Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM).

Alainati, S., Al-Hunaiyyan, A., & Alkhatib, H. (2023B). Instructors’ Digital Competencies for Innovative Learning: Human Resource Management Perspectives. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 8(10), e03750.

Alainati, S., Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Alhajri, R., Alahmad, F., & Alkhatib, H. (2023C). Perceptions of Online Learning Among Instructors: How to Maximize Instructors’ Competencies in Virtual and Blended Learning. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 8(11), e03924.

Alainati, S., Almonawer, N., & Al-Hammad, F. (2023D). Transformational Leadership in Education: Review of Literature. The International Journal of Business & Management, 11(2)., 73-88.

Alhajri, R., Al-Hunaiyyan, A., & Almousa, E. (2017). Understanding the Impact of Individual Differences on Learner Performance Using Hypermedia Systems. International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies. Volume 12. Issue 1. January-March.

Alhajri, R., Al-Sharhan, S., Al-Hunaiyyan, A., & Alothman, T. (2011). Design of educational multimedia interfaces: individual differences of learners. Proceedings of the Second Kuwait Conference on e-Services and e-Systems, (pp. 1-5). Kuwait.

Al-Harbi, S., Thursfield, D., & Bright , D. (2017). Culture, Wasta and perceptions of performance appraisal in Saudi Arabia. The International Journal of Human Resource Management,( 28:19), DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2016.1138987, 2792-2810.

Al-Hunaiyyan, A., & Al-Sharhan, S. (2009). The Design of Multimedia blended e-learning Systems: Cultural Considerations. Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on Singals, Circuits and Systems, November 6-8, 2009, (pp. 1-5). Djerba, Tunisia.

Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Alainati, S., Alhajri, R., & Alhuwail, N. (2024). Evaluation of Microsoft Teams as an online learning platform: Investigating User Experience (UX). Journal of Research Administration, 06(1).

Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Al-Hajri, R., & Bimba, A. (2021C). Towards an Efficient Integrated Distance and Blended earning Model: How to Minimise the Impact of COVID-19 on Education. International International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), 15(10).

Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Alhajri, R., Al-Sharhan, S., & Al-Ghannam, B. (2021B). Factors Influencing the Acceptance and Adoption of Online Learning in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies (IJWLTT). Vol. 16(6), 1-16.

Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Alhajri, R., Al-Sharhan, S., & Bimba, A. (2021D). Human-Computer Interaction Perspective on Mobile Learning: Gender and Social implications. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), 15(11).

Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Alhajri, R., Alzayed, A., & Alraqqas, B. (2016 September-October). Towards an Effective Distance Learning Model: Implementation Framework for Arab Universities. International Journal of Computer Application, 6(5).

Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Al-Sharhan, S., Alainati, S., & Al-Duaij, M. (2023). A New Competency Model for Digital Instructors: Towards Innovative Teaching and Learning In The Digital Era. Journal of Data Acquisition and Processing, 2023, Vol. 38, Issue 4,, 1167-1186.

Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Al-Sharhan, S., Alhajri, R., & Bimba, A. (2021A). An Integrated Implementation Framework for an Efficient Transformation to Online Education. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications (IJACSA), 12(4).

Al-Huwail, N., Al-Sharhan, S., & Al-Hunaiyyan, A. (2007). Learning Design for a Successful Blended E-learning Environment: Cultural Dimensions. Journal of Computer Science, INFOCOMP, 6(4), 60-69.

Al-Jedaia, Y., & Mehrez, A. (2020). The effect of performance appraisal on job performance in governmental sector: the mediating role of motivation. Management Science Letters,, 2077-2088.

Almonawer, N., Althonayan, A., Alainati, S., Al-Hammad, F., Rasheedul Haque, & Senathirajah, A. (2023). Transformational Leadership Style and School Transformation: The Case of Secondary Schools in Kuwait. International Journal of Operations and Quantitative Management, , 2023, 29(1), 51–67.

Al-Sharhan, S., Al-Hunaiyan, A., & Gueaieb, W. (2006). Success factors for an efficient blended learning. In Proceedings of the 10th IASTED International Conference on Internet And Multimedia Systems And Applications, 77–82.

Al-Sharhan, S., Al-Hunaiyyan, A., & Al-Sharrah, H. (2010). A new efficient blended e-learning model and framework for k12 and higher education: : Design and Implementation Success Factors. In I. D. (ICDIM) (Ed.), Proceedings of the IEEE Fifth International Conference on Digital Information Management. (ICDIM 2010), July 05-08, 2010 (pp. 465–471). Thunder Bay, Canada: IEEE,

Amoako, M. (2021). Assessing the Effect of Performance Appraisal System at Kumasi Technical University, Ghana. The International Journal of Business & Management, 9(11).

Andersen, S., Bruntse, M., & Oliver , J. (2024). Simon Calmar Andersen, Morten Bruntse, Oliver James, Sebastian Jilke, Does Work Quality Differ between the Public and Private Sectors? Evidence from Two Online Field Experiments. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Volume 34, Issue 1, January 2024,, 80–91.

Bashir, M. (2017). The Effect of Performance Appraisal System on Teachers' Satisfaction and Performance in Pakistan Excel English School – Kuwait. Thesis for: Master’s degree. Requirements of the Università degli Studi Guglielmo Marconi for the degree of master’s in education leadership, Management and Emerging Technologies. 10.13140/RG.2.2.


Campbell, J., & Wiernik, B. (2015). The Modeling and Assessment of Work Performance. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 2(1), 47-74.

Chan, Y., & Lynn, B. (1991). Performance Evaluation and the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Journal of Management Articles, 57-58.

Curzi, Y., Fabbri, T., Scapolan, A., & Boscolo, S. (2019). Performance appraisal and innovative behavior in the digital era. Frontiers in Psychology, 10.

Dangol, P. (2020). Role of Performance Appraisal System and Its Impact on Employees Motivation. Quantitative Economics and Management Studies. 2. 10.35877/454RI.qems119.

Dangol, P. (2021). Role of performance appraisal system and its impact on employees motivation. Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, 2(1), 13-26.

Dasanayaka, C., Abeykoon, C., Ranaweera, R., & Koswatte, I. (2021). Dasanayaka, C., Abeykoon, C., Ranaweera, R., & Koswatte, I. (2021). The impact of the performance appraisal process on job satisfaction of the academic staff in higher educational institutions. Education Sciences, 11(10), 623.

Dhanabhakyam, M., & KP, F. (2023). Influence of performance appraisal system in private sector banks on employee morale. International Journal of Applied Research, 9(2), 284-288.

Guest, D. (1999). Human Resource Management: The Workers Verdict. Human Resource Management Journal, 9(3), 5-25.

Hamid, M., Sami, W., & Sidek, M. (2017). Discriminant Validity Assessment: Use of Fornell & Larcker criterion versus HTMT Criterion. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 890. 012163. 10.1088/1742-6596/890/1/012163.

Hassan, Q., Mubeen, N., Ali, S., & Sajjid, N. (2022). Job satisfaction through performance appraisal: moderating role of locus of control. International Journal of Management Research and Emerging Sciences, 12(3).

Hodgetts, R. (2002). Modern Human Relations at Work. Harcourt College Publishers.

Idowu, A. (2019). Examining employees’ attitudes towards performance appraisal and its impact on performance and motivation in a uk information technology (it) firm. Journal of Economics Management and Trade, 1-14.

Judge, T., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. (2022). Staffing Organizations, 10th Edition. McGraw Hill. ISBN10: 1260703053 | ISBN13: 9781260703054.

Kamau, O., Muathe, S., & Wainaina, L. (2021). Teachers’ turnover intentions: role of hrm practices in public secondary schools in kenya. Cogent Business & Management, 8(1).

Kandel, L. (2021). Effects of performance appraisal system on employees’ performance in the joint venture banks of nepal. Management Dynamics, 24(1), 83-94.

Khan, M., Hussain, A., Hussain, J., & Khan, M. (2020). Effect of performance appraisal on employees’ satisfaction: a case study of university of peshawar, khyber pakhtunkhwa, pakistan. Review of Applied Management and Social Sciences, 3(2),, 131-140.

Kwon, H. (2020). Performance appraisal politics in the public sector: The effects of political skill and social similarity on performance rating. Public Pers. Manag. 49, 239–261. doi: 10.1177/0091026019859906.

Lay, A. (2022). Crucial issues in developing teacher educators' performance appraisal. Journal of Adult Learning Knowledge and Innovation, 5(2), 125-134.


Li, X. (2019). Performance appraisal based on incentive strengthening theory and its application in human resource management. Destech Transactions on Social Science Education and Human Science, (isehs).

Lin, Y., andvLin, Y., & Kellough, J. (2018). Performance appraisal problems in the public sector: examining supervisors’ perceptions. Public Personnel Management, 48(2), 179-202.

Lloyd, K. (2009). Performance Appraisals and Phrases For Dummies. Wiley. ISBN: 978-0-470-49872-9.

Lu, H., Yue, A., Han, Y., & Chen, H. (2018). Exploring the effect of different performance appraisal purposes on miners’ organizational citizenship behavior: the mediating role of organization identification. Sustainability, 10(11), 4254.,

Madureira, C., Rando, B., & Ferraz, D. (2020). The public administration performance appraisal integrated system (siadap) and the portuguese civil servants perceptions. International Journal of Public Administration, 44(4),, 300-310.

Majeed, H. (2021). Performance appraisal. Retrieved from JALHSS, 70:

Mok, M., & Leong, Y. (2021). Factors affecting the effectiveness of employees’ performance appraisal in private hospitals in malaysia. International Journal of Business and Society, 22(1), 257-275.

Nobari, B., Arian, G., Ebrahimi, E., & Shoja, A. (2021). Employee performance appraisal system development in the national library and archives of iran (nlai): soft operational research approach. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 22(2),, 117-136.

Nutsubidze, N., & Schmidt, D. (2021). Rethinking the role of HRM during COVID-19 pandemic era: Case of Kuwait. Review of Socio-Economic Perspectives, 6(1), 1-12.

Park, S., & Choi, S. (2020). Performance feedback, goal clarity, and publicemployees’ performance in public organizations. Sustainability, 12(7), 1-18.doi:10.3390/su12073011.

Raveendran, T., & Hameela, T. (2020). Perceived quality of performance appraisal system and its impact on job performance of employees in bank of ceylon. Journal of Business Studies, 7(2), 77-95.

Ross, A., & Willson, V. (2017). Descriptive Statistics. In Basic and Advanced Statistical Tests, Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Rue, L., & Byars, L. (2005). Management: Skills and Application. Irwin McGraw- Hill 2000.

Sawitri, N., & Arifin, A. (2021). The financial position of youth employee: pinning-up of financial capability and income. Jurnal Akuntansi, 25(1), 1.

Selvarajan, R., Peggy, V., & Cloninger, P. (2008). Selvarajan, Rajan & Peggy, Victoria & Cloninger, Peggy. (2008). The Importance Of Accurate Performance Appraisals For Creating Ethical Organizations. Journal of Applied Business Research. 24. 10.19030/jabr.v24i3.1340.

Selvarajan, T., & Cloninger, P. (2012). Can performance appraisals motivate employees to improve performance? A Mexican study. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 23(15). 10.1080/09585192.2011.637069., 3063-3084.

Senathirajah, A. B., Alainati, S., Haque, R., Ahmed, S., Khalil, M. I., & Chowdhury, B. (2024). Antecedents and Consequence of Trust - Commitment Towards Artificial Based Customer Experience. UCJC Business and Society Review Vol. 21, Issue 80,

Sepahvand, F., Mohammadipour, F., Parvizy, S., Tafreshi, M., & Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, F. (2020). Improving nurses’ organizational commitment by participating in their performance appraisal process. Journal of Nursing Management, 28(3),, 595-605.

Shaw, J., Delery, J., Jenkins, G., & Gupta, N. (2008). Shaw, J., Delery, J., Jenkins, G., & Gupta, N. (2008). An organization-level analysis of voluntary and involuntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 511–525.

Susanto, S., & Darmasetiawan, N. (2020). Designing a performance appraisal system for management consultant office “d”. Dinasti. International Journal of Digital Business Management, 1(3), 361-374.

Tobi, H., & Kampen, J. (2018). Research design: the methodology for interdisciplinary research framework, Quality & Quantity. International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 52(3), 1209-1225.

Uchenna, O., Agu, A., & Uche, E. (2018). Performance appraisal and employee commitment in abia state civil service: a focus on ministries of education and works. Archives of Business Research, 6(10).

Ullah, Z., Scholz, M., Ahmed, B., Ahmad, I., & Usman, M. (2021). Perceived accuracy of electronic performance appraisal systems: the case of a non-for-profit organization from an emerging economy. Sustainability, 13(4), 2109.

Vasset, F., Marnburg, E., & Furunes, T. (2011). Vasset, Frøydis & Marnburg, Einar & Furunes, Trude. (2011). The effects of performance appraisal in the Norwegian municipal health services: A case study. Human resources for health. 9. 22. 10.1186/1478-4491-9-22.

Wikipedia. (2023). Economy of Kuwait. Wikipedia.

Zhen-qi, J., & Zhang, G. (2021). Impact of perception of performance appraisal politics on affective commitment: mediate effect of perception of organizational support and differentiation effect of perception attribution. E3s Web of Conferences, 245, 03035.




How to Cite

Alainati, S., AlKhatib, H., AlAjmi, M., & Al-Duaij, M. (2024). INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM: KUWAIT CASE STUDY. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 9(3), e04453.