Tourism impacts of poverty alleviation on ethnic households: Comparing difference between Cham, Khmer, and Chinese ethnic households in An Giang province, Viet nam




Poverty Alleviation, Ethnic Households, Executive Education, Impact of Tourism, An Giang


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of tourism on poverty alleviation in minority households and to propose tourism development solutions to effectively reduce poverty for ethnic groups. This study surveyed ethnic households in An Giang Province, Vietnam, where the majority of Khmer, Cham, and Chinese households live in crowded conditions, and tourism was identified as an alternative means of poverty alleviation for the households.


Theoretical framework:  Different ethnic groups, according to Kyle et al. (2019), have different perspectives on tourism in general and ethnic neighborhood tourism. Academic research on poverty alleviation in tourism has advanced from concept to development model (Jin et al., 2019), influencing factors, and implementation path (Jin et al, 2019; Guo, 2020). Even if no jobs are created, investment in tourism infrastructure can connect villagers to the larger economy, which will benefit local agriculture. (Lor et all 2019, Hall, 2007; Li et al., 2016; Oraboune, 2008). Aside from focusing solely on household income and consumption, Sen (1999) emphasized the importance of addressing the problem of capability deprivations in any effort to reduce poverty. For this reason, household capacity must be taken into consideration when assessing poverty reduction among different households. According to Duong & Dung (2018) and Ngoc (2018), the factors influencing livelihoods include objective and subjective household factors, while Nui (2019) indicated that the choice of household livelihood strategy differs depending on the household's economic level. Farmers will face a wide range of influencing factors when implementing livelihood strategies, and as a result, the livelihood outcomes experienced by each farmer will differ, Tuan and Dung (2015). Based on the literature review and the situation in the study area, it is evident that comparative studies on the level of poverty reduction among ethnic minority households have few research documents; therefore, the implementation of this study is insufficient.


Design/methodology/approach:  The research was done in Tinh Bien, Tri Ton, An Phu, Tan Chau, and Chau Doc, An Giang. This was chosen as the study site because ethnic households exist there, affecting tourism development. Fieldwork was done in 2021 and 2022. The second phase allowed for data verification and gap filling. In the first phase, the sampling technique evolved as the author became more familiar with case studies and could assess the number of persons to approach given time restrictions. Questionnaires were utilized to acquire data. The 390 samples of questionnaires were from Tinh Bien, Tri Ton, An Phu, Tan Chau, and Chau Doc by employing Taro Yamane's algorithm to determine the number of households to survey.  Post hoc one-way ANOVA was conducted to compare the poverty reduction impact of tourism on three groups of households by assessment of the different demographic characteristics of the respondent.


Findings:  The findings reveal that the poverty reduction impact of tourism on ethnic households differs before and after tourism implementation; ethnic households feel the poverty reduction impacts more strongly after tourism development. When comparing the impact of poverty reduction on economics, access to essential social services, livelihoods, and socio-cultural factors, Khmer, Chinese, and Cham households have significantly lower levels of poverty. Meanwhile, tourism has a greater impact on poverty alleviation in Khmer households than it does in Cham households, and Chinese groups wield more power than Khmer groups. When comparing the Human, Social, Natural, Financial, and Institutional assets of three ethnic minority households to understand the causes of different poverty alleviation, the Chinese have the most of all five assets, followed by the Khmer, and finally the Cham.


Research, Practical & Social implications:  Tourism has provided an additional source of income for ethnic minority households in Vietnam, thereby reducing poverty, according to the study's findings. Despite this, the level of poverty reduction among ethnic minority households is contingent on the household's livelihood assets, which include human capital, social capital, natural capital, financial capital, and institutional capital. Due to a lack of education, professional tourism skills, and access to information technology, the human capital of ethnic minority households is limited. To enhance the efficacy of tourism development and alleviate poverty among ethnic minority households, it is necessary to improve means of subsistence.


Originality/value: The results indicate that the number of publications is growing, and the management and business area is the one that contributes the most, with the countries that produce in co-authorship also providing the most publications.


Download data is not yet available.


Adger, W.N., (1999). Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and Extremes in Coastal Vietnam. World Development, 27(2): 249-269.

Adiyia B., Vanneste D. & Van Rompaey A. (2017). The poverty alleviation potential of tourism employment as an off-farm activity on the local livelihoods surrounding Kibale National Park, western Uganda. Tourism and Hospitality Research. 17(1): 34-51.

An Giang Statistical Office, (2021). An Giang Provincial Statistical Yearbook 2021. An Giang: An Giang Statistical Office.

Anderson, W. (2014). Cultural tourism and poverty alleviation in rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania Journal Tourism Culture Change, 13, 208–224.

Ap, J., & Crompton, J. L. (1998). Developing and testing a tourism impact scale. Journal of Travel Research, 37(2), 120 – 131.

Briedenhann, J. (2011). The Potential of Small Tourism Operators in the Promotion of Pro-Poor Tourism. Journal Hospitality Marketing. Management, 20, 484–500.

Carney, D. (1998). Sustainable rural livelihoods. Russell Press: Nottingham.

Carney, D. (1998). Sustainable rural livelihoods. Russell Press: Nottingham.

Chambers, R., & Conway, G.R. (1992). Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21st century. (No. IDS Discussion Paper 296). Brighton: IDS.

Croes, R. (2014). The Role of Tourism in Poverty Reduction: An Empirical Assessment. Tourism Economy, 20, 207–226.

Croes, R.; Rivera, M.A. (2013). Tourism’s potential to benefit the poor: A social accounting matrix model applied to Ecuador. Tourism Economy, 23, 29–48.

Dao Truong, V., & Hall, C. M. (2015). Exploring the poverty reduction potential of social marketing in tourism development. Australian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 8(2), 125–142.

Davidson, L. & Sahli, M. (2015). Foreign direct investment in tourism, poverty alleviation, and sustainable development: A review of the Gambian hotel sector. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23(2), 167-187.

Duong, L.A. & Dung, P.T.M. (2018). Changing livelihoods of farmers in the suburbs of Nam Dinh city in the process of urbanization. Vietnam Journal Agriculture Science, 15(2), 270-279.

Ellis, F. (2000). Rural livelihoods and diversity in developing countries. New York: Oxford University Press.

Folarin, O., & Adeniyi, O. (2020). Does Tourism Reduce Poverty in Sub-Saharan African Countries. Journal of Travel Research, 59(1), 140–155.

Garza-Rodriguez, J. (2019). Tourism and poverty reduction in Mexico: An ARDL Cointegration Approach. Sustainability, 11(845), 2-10.

Guo, Y. (2020). Research on the poverty alleviation practice model and path of rural tourism in Henan province from the perspective of targeted poverty alleviation. Agriculture Economy, 10, 55–56.

Hall, C. M. (2007). Pro-poor tourism: Who benefits? Perspectives on tourism and poverty reduction 3. London: Channel View Publications.

Hampton, M., (2005). Heritage, local communities, and economic development. Annual Tourism Research, 32, 735–759.

Hoang, T.T.H., Anton, V.R., Patrick, M., Gerard, G., Chi, K.C, Thinh, N.A, Luc.H, Veerle, V. (2020). Impact of tourism development on the local livelihoods and land cover change in the Northern Vietnamese highlands. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 22, 1371–1395.

Hung, T.V. (2013). Upland Livelihoods - Some case studies on new approaches. Hanoi: Agriculture Publishing House.

Ishii, K. (2012). The impact of ethnic tourism on hill tribes in Thailand. Annals of Tourism Research, 39, 290-310.

Jin, S., Huang, J., & Lin, Z. (2019). Thinking on the path to realize the development of tourism poverty alleviation in ethnic areas. Journal Yanbian University, 52, 93–101.

Kyle M., W., Naho U., M, Manuel, A., R & Dongoh., J (2019). Explaining minority residents' attitudes of ethnic enclave tourism from general perceptions of tourism impacts. Journal of Tourism and Cultural change 17(4), 467 -484.

Li, Y., Yu, H., Chen, T., Hu, J., & Cui, H. (2016). Livelihood changes and evolution of upland ethnic communities driven by tourism: A case study in Guizhou province, Southwest China. Journal of Mountain Science, 13(7), 1313–1332.

Linh, H.Q. (2017). Analysis of factors affecting poverty in Tra Vinh province. Journal of Science and Technology, 26 (02), 45 -54.

Llorca-Rodríguez, C. M., García-Fernández, R. M. & Casas-Jurado, A. C. (2020). Domestic versus inbound tourism in poverty reduction: evidence from panel data. Current Issues in Tourism, 23(2), 197-216.

Lor, J.J, Kwa, S, & Donaldson, J., A. (2019). Making ethnic tourism good for the poor. Annals of Tourism Research, 76, 140-152.

Lv, H., Zhong, H., & Ding, Z. (2020). Analysis of the influencing factors of community residents' participation in tourism poverty alleviation in ethnic areas – based on the survey of Zhaoxing Scenic Spot in Guizhou. Journal Guilin University Technology, 40, 637–642.

Mahony, K., & Van Zyl, J. (2002). The impacts of tourism investment on rural communities: Three case studies in South Africa. Development Southern Africa, 19(1), 83–103.

Medina-Muñoz, D.R., Medina-Muñoz, R. D. & Gutiérrez-Pérez, F. J. (2016b). A sustainable development approach to assessing the engagement of tourism enterprises in poverty alleviation. Sustainable Development, 24, 220–236.

Medina-Muñoz, D.R.; Medina-Muñoz, R.D.; Gutiérrez-Pérez, F.J. (2015). The impacts of tourism on poverty alleviation: An integrated research framework. Journal Sustainable Tourism, 24, 270–298.

Mitchell, J.; Ashley, C. (2010). Tourism and Poverty Reduction: Pathways and Prosperity; Earthscan: London, UK.

Muganda, M., Sahli, M., & Smith, K. (2010). Tourism’s contribution to poverty alleviation: A community perspective from Tanzania. Development Southern Africa, 27(5), 629-646.

Ngoc, V.T.T.N. (2018). Tourism economy towards sustainable development in Thua Thien Hue province. Doctoral thesis, Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics: Ho Chi Minh city.

Nui, N.H. (2019). Sustainable livelihood development for forest dependent people in Bac Can. PhD thesis. Ha Noi: Vietnam Academy of Agriculture.

Oraboune, S. (2008). Infrastructure (rural road) development and poverty alleviation in Lao PDR. IDE Discussion Paper. No. 151. 2008.4. Accessed 7/7/2022.

Pleumarom, A. (2012). The Politics of Tourism, Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development. Malaysia: Third World Network publication.

Rufaro, G., Tafadzwa, M., (2020). Exploring the Tourism-Poverty Alleviation Nexus in the Brics Group of Nations. Ekonomika, 99(1), 93–109.

Saayman, M.; Rossouw, R.; Krugell, W. (2012). The impact of tourism on poverty in South Africa. Development South Africa, 29, 462–487.

Sabin., K. (2021). Sustainable Livelihood Framework: Monitoring and Evaluation. International Journal Social Science Management, 8(1), 266-271.

Scheyvens, R., & Russell, M. (2012). Tourism and poverty alleviation in Fiji: Comparing the impacts of small- and large-scale tourism enterprises. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(3), 417 - 436.

Scheyvens, R.; Hughes, E. (2019). Can tourism help to “end poverty in all its forms everywhere”? The challenge of tourism addressing SDG1. Journal Sustainable Tourism, 27, 1061–1079.

Sen, A. Development as Freedom; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 1999.

Soliman, M.S. (2014). Pro-poor tourism in protected areas—Opportunities and challenges: “The case of Fayoum, Egypt”. Anatolia, 26, 61–72.

Spenceley, A.; Habyalimana, S.; Tusabe, R.; Mariza, D. (2010). Benefits to the poor from gorilla tourism in Rwanda. Development South Africa, 27, 647–662.

Spenceley, A.; Habyalimana, S.; Tusabe, R.; Mariza, D. (2010). Benefits to the poor from gorilla tourism in Rwanda. Development South Africa, 27, 647–662.

Stonich, S.C.; Sorensen, J.H.; Hundt, A. (1995) Ethnicity, class, and gender in tourism development: The case of the Bay Islands, Honduras. Journal Sustainable Tourism, 3, 1–28.

Thanh, D.T., Lien, T.H., Tạo, N.T., Hue, H.T.M. (2019). Characteristics of livelihood capital sources and factors affecting household income in Drang Phok village, Yok Don national park. Journal of forestry science and technology 1, 130 -140.

Thu, N.H. (2019). Models of development of livelihood resources in our country in the world and labor orientation for rural areas in Vietnam. Journal of Development and Integration, 45(55), 16 - 26.

Tuan, V.V., & Dung, L.C. (2015). Factors affecting livelihood outcomes of households in the Mekong Delta. Can Tho University Journal of Scientific, 38, 120 – 129.

Tung. T.L., & Cuong. K.L., (2020). Impact of tourism on poverty reduction: Evidence from an emerging tourism market. Montenegrin Journal of Economics, 16 (3), 45- 55.

United Nation World Tourist Organization (UNWTO), (2022). World Tourism Barometer, 20(2), Spain: Madrid.

Wang, K.; Gan, C.; Chen, L.; Voda, M. (2020). Poor Residents’ Perceptions of the Impacts of Tourism on Poverty Alleviation: From the Perspective of Multidimensional Poverty. Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 2-18.

Worku M. (2017). The Role of Forest Biodiversity Conservation Practices for Tourism Development in a Case of Tara Gedam Monastery, South Gonder Zone. Ethiopia. Journal. Ecosystem Echography 7(2), 1-6.

World Tourist Organization, (2021). World Tourism Barometer, 19(5), Spain: Madrid.

Yaling L., Rui L., & Yuting L., (2021). A Study on Poverty Alleviation by Tourism in the Border Area Between China and Myanmar. Proceeding of International Conference on Tourism, Economy, and Environmental Sustainability (TEES 2021) Conferences, China.

Yang J., Wu Y., Wang J., Wan C., and Wu Q., (2021) A Study on the Efficiency of Tourism Poverty Alleviation in Ethnic Regions Based on the Staged DEA Model. Frontier Psychology, 6(12), 1-13.

Yang, X. & Hung, K. (2014). Poverty alleviation via tourism cooperatives in China: The story of Yuhu. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(6), 879 – 906.

Zhao, L.; & Xia, X. (2019). Tourism and poverty reduction: Empirical evidence from China. Tourism Economy, 26, 233–256.

Zhao, W. & Ritchie, J.R.B. (2007). Tourism and poverty alleviation: An integrative research framework. Current Issues in Tourism, 10(2–3), 119–143.




How to Cite

Quyen, L. T. T., & Tuan, T. H. (2022). Tourism impacts of poverty alleviation on ethnic households: Comparing difference between Cham, Khmer, and Chinese ethnic households in An Giang province, Viet nam. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 7(4), e0527.