Exploring Relationship of Job Satisfaction, Organizatonal Culture, and Employee Performance in Small Medium Enterprise





Job Satisfaction, Organizational Culture, In-Role Performance, Extra-role Performance


Purpose: The objective of this study was to re-examined the relationship of job satisfaction, organizational culture and employee performance.


Theoretical framework:  There were several studies that examine the relationship between organizational culture, job satisfaction, and employee performance. The employee performance is a consequence of organizational culture and employee job satisfaction. The relationship between the three variables is not surprising, especially the relationship between the two types of performance measures, in-role performance (IRP) and extra-role performance (ERP).


Design/methodology/approach:  This study aims to re-examine the relationship and influence job satisfaction (JS), organizational culture (OC), in-role performance (IRP), and extra-role performance (ERP) using 376 employees who work in several micro, small and medium scale manufacturing companies in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.  The factor analysis was used to test the validity, and Cronbach’ Alpha for reliability of the instrument. The structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship model.


Findings:  The results of this study revealed that JS is a variable that is not related to the other three variables and does not influence either IRP or ERP. This study found that JS is related to and influenced by the organizational culture (OC) adopted. This study strengthened the findings of previous studies that OC is one of the important factors to improve employee performance.


Research, Practical & Social implications: Small Medium Enterprises must strengthen organizational culture in order to increase job satisfaction and employee performance, both IRP and ERP.  The use of longitudinal data needs to be used to test the mediation of the model. Other raters also need to be used to assess employee performance and eliminate common method variances.


Originality/value:  Job satisfaction is not always an independent variable as in many studies but can be a consequence of individual internal and external factors.


Download data is not yet available.


Agrawal, P. & Gautam, O. (2019). The effects of leaders’ behavior on job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, deviant behavior and job performance of employees. Deviance in Modern Organization, 9, 100-113. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845316634056.

Astakhova, M.N. (2015). The curvilinear relationship between work passion and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 130, 361-374. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2233-5.

Basu, E., Pradhan, R.K., & Teware, H.R. (2017). Impact of organizational citizenship behavior on job performance in Indian healthcare industries: The mediating role of social capital. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 66(6), 780-796. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-22-2016-0048.

Belias, D., Koustelios,A., Vairaktarakis, G, & Sdrolias, L. (2015). Organizational culture and job satisfaction of Greek banking institutions. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Science, 175, 314-323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.1206.

Bellou, V. (2010). Organizational culture as a predictor of job satisfaction: The role of gender and age. Career Development International, 15(1), 4-19. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431011020862.

Bellou, V. (2010). Organizational culture as a predictor of job satisfaction: The role of gender and age. Career Development International, 15 (1), 4-19. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431011020862.

Bergeron, D.M., Shipp, A.J., Rosen, B. & Furst, S.A. (2013). Organizational citizenship behavior and career outcomes: The cost of being a good citizen. Journal of Management, 39(4), 958-984. https://doi/10.1177/0149206311407508.

Bolino, M.C., Klotz, A.C., Turnley, W.H., & Harvey, J. (2013). Exploring the dark side of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34, 542-559. https://doi.org.10.1002/job.1847.

Cek, K. & Eyupoglu, S. (2020). Does a job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior relationship exist among teachers? South African Journal of Education, 40(2), S1-S12. https://doi.org/10.15700/saje.v4ons2a1711.

Daniela, P. (2015). The relationship between self-regulation, motivation and

performance at secondary school students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 191, 2549-2553. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.410.

Davila, M.C. & Finkelstein, M.A. (2013). Organizational citizenship behavior and well-being: Preliminary results. International Journal of Applied Psychology, 3(3), 45-51. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ijap.20130303.03.

Debuscer, J., Hofinas, J., & Defrugt, F. (2016). The multiple face(t)s of state conscientiousness: predicting task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Research in Personality, 69(1), 78-85. https://dx.doi.org/j.jrp.2016.06.009.

Deery, S., Rayton, B., Walsch, J., & Kinnie, N. (2017). The costs of exhibiting organizational citizenship behavior. Human Resource Management, 56(6), 1039-1049. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.2185.

Douglas, R.P. & Duffy, R.D. (2015). Strengths use and life satisfaction: A moderated mediation approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 619-632. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9525-4.

Ebrahimpour, H., Zahed, A., Khaleghkhan, A., & Sepehri, M.B. (2011). A survey relation between organizational culture and organizational citizenship behavior. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Science, 30, 1920-1925. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.373.

Emerson, R. M. (1976). Social Exchange Theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 335-362. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2946096.

Eskiler, E., Ekici, S., Soyer, F., & Sari, I. (2016). The relationship between organizational culture and innovative work behavior for sports services in tourism enterprises. Physical Culture and Sport Studies and Research, 69(1), 53-64. https://doi.org/10.1515.pcssr-2016-0007.

Ghosh S. & Srivastava, B.K. (2014)Construction of a Reliable and Valid Scale for Measuring

Organizational Culture. Global Business Review, 15(3) 583–596. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972150914535145.

Hardcopf, R., Liu, G., & Shah, R. (2021). Lean production and operational performance: The influence of organizational culture. International Journal of Production Economics, 235, 108060. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2021.108060.

Hosseinkhanzadeh, A.A., Hosseinkhanzadeh, A., & Yeganeh, T. (2013). Investigate relationship between job satisfaction and organizational culture among teachers. Procedia – Social and Behavioraal Science, 84, 832-836. https://doi.org/j.sbspro.2013.06.656.

Hu, L. & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.

Jacobs, R., Mannion, R., Davies, H.O.T., Harrison, S., Konteh, F. & Walshe, K. (2013). The relationship between organizational culture and performance in acute hospitals. Social Science and Medicine, 76, 115-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.10.014.

Jafarpanah, M. & Rezaei, B. (2020). Association between organizational citizenship behavior and patient safety culture from nurses’ perspectives: a descriptive correlational study. BMC Nursing, 19(24), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-020-00416-y.

Jeong, Y., Kim, E., Kim, M., Zhang, J.J. (2019). Exploring relationships among organizational culture, empowerment, and organizational citizenship behavior in the South Korean professional sport industry. Sustainability, 11, 5412. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195412.

Jiang, W., Zhao, X.. & Ni, J.B. (2017). The impact of transformational leadership on employee sustainable performance: The mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior. Sustainability, 9, 1567. http://doi.org/10.3390/su9091567.

Kabak, K.E., Sen, A., Gocer, K., Kucuksoylemez, S., & Tuncer, G. (2014). Strategies for employee job satisfaction: A case of service sector. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 150, 1167-1176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.09.132.

Kelidbari, H.R.R., Fadaei, M., & Ebrahimi, P. (2016). The role of ethical leadership on employee performance in Guilan University of medical sciences. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 230, 463 – 470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.09.058.

Khan, M.A., Ismail, F.B, Hussain, A., & Alghazali, B. (2020). The interplay of leadership styles, innovative work behavior, organizational culture, and organizational citizenship behavior. SAGE Open, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019898264.

Klotz, A., Bolino, M.C., Song, H., & Stornelli, J. (2018). Examining the nature, cause, and consequences of profiles of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(5), 629-647. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2259.

Koopmans, L., Bernaards, C., Hildebrandt, V., van Buuren, S.,van der Beek, A.J., 7 de Vet, H.C.W. (2013). Development of an individual work performance questionnaire. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(1), 6-28. https://doi.org/10.1108/17410401311285273.

Lavy, S. & Littman-Ovadia, H. (2017). My better self: Using strengths at work and work productivity, organizational citizenship behavior, and satisfaction. Journal of Career Development, 44(2), 95-109. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845316634056.

Littman-Ovadia, H. & Lavy, S. (2016). Going the extra mile: Perseverance as a key character strength at work. Journal of Career Assessment, 24, 240-252. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072715580322.

Machalek, R., & Martin, M.W. (2015). Sociobiology and Sociology: A New Synthesis in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2nd .

MacIntosh, E.W. & Doherty, A. (2010). The influence of organizational culture on job satisfaction and intention to leave. Sport Management Review, 13(1), 106-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2009.04.006.

Meynhardt, T., Brieger, S. A. & Hermann, C. (2018): Organizational public value and employee life satisfaction: the mediating roles of work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31(12), 1560-1593. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2017.1416653.

Miao, C., Humphrey, R.H., & Qian, S. (2018). A cross-cultural meta-analysis of how leader emotional intelligence influences subordinate task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of World Business, 53(4), 463-474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2018.01.003.

Nadiri, H. & Tanova, C. (2010). An investigation of the role of justice in turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior in hospitality industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(1), 33-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.05.001.

Na-Nan, K., Kanthong, S., Joungtrakut, J., & Smith, I.D. (2020). Mediating effects of job satisfaction and organizational commitment between problems with performance appraisal and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 6(3), 64. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc60300464.

Ng, L.P., Choong, Y.O., Kuan, L.S., Tan, C.E., & Teoh, S.Y. (2019). Job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior amongst health professionals: The mediating role of work engagement. International Journal of Healthcare Management, 14(3), 797-804. https://doi.org/10.1080/20479700.2019.1698850.

Penney, L.M., David, E., & Witt, L.A. (2011). A review of personality and performance: Identifying boundaries, contingencies, and future research directions. Human Resource Management Review, 21, 291-310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.10.005.

Platis, Ch., Reklitis, P., & Zimeras, S. (2015). Relation between job satisfaction and job performance in healthcare services. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 175, 480 – 487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.1226.

Pletzer, J.L. (2021). Why older employees engage in less counterproductive work behavior and in more organizational citizenship behavior: Examining the role of the

HEXACO personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 173, 110550. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110550.

Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Welsh, D. T., & Mai, K. M. (2013). Surveying for “artifacts”: The susceptibility of the OCB–performance evaluation relationship to common rater, item, and measurement context effects. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(5), 863–874. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032588.

Pradan, P.K. & Jena, L.K. (2017). Employee performance at workplace: Conceptual model and empirical validation. Business Perspectives and Research, 5(1) 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/2278533716671630.

Rai, A., Ghosh, P., Chauhan, R., & Singh, R. (2018). Improving in-role and extra-role performance with rewards and recognition: Does engagement mediate the process> Management Research Review, 41(8), 902-919. http://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-12-2016-0280.

Rapp, A.A., Bachrach, D.G., & Rapp, T.L. (2013). The influence of time management skill on the curvilinear relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and task performance. Journal of Applied psychologu, 98(4), 668-677. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0031733.

Robbins, S.P. & Judge, T.A. (2016). Organizational Behavior 16th edition. New York: Pearson Education.

Ruiz-Palomino, P. & Martinez-Canas, R. (2014). Ethical culture, ethical intent, and organizational citizenship behavior: The moderating and mediating role of person organization fit. Journal of Business Ethics, 120(1), 95-108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-013-1650-1.

Saad, G.B. & Abbas, M. (2018). The impact of organizational culture on job performance: A study of Saudi Arabian public sector work culture. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 16(3), 207-218. https://doi.org/10.21511/PPM.16(3).2018.17.

Sadeghi, K., Amani, J., & Mahmudi, H. (2013). A structural model of the impact of organizational culture on job satisfaction among secondary school teachers. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22, 687-700. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-013-0074-0.

Saxena, S., Tomar, K., & Tomar, S. (2019). Impact of job satisfaction on organizational citizenship behavior. Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Digital Strategies for Organizational Success. Available at SSRN: https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3323753.

Sharma, P. (2017). Organizational culture as predictor of job satisfaction: The role of age and gender. Management, 22(1), 35-48. https://doi.org/10.30924/mjcmi/2017.22.1.35.

Singh, S.K. & Singh, A.P. (2019). Interplay of organizational justice, psychological empowerment, organizational citizenship behavior, and job satisfaction in the context of circular economy. Management Decision, 57(4), 937-952. https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-09-2019-0966.

Soomro, B.A. & Shah, N. (2019). Determining the impact of entrepreneurial orientation and organizational culture on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee performance. South Asian Journal of Business Studies, 8(3), 266-282. https://doi.org/10.1108/S4JBS-12-2018-01412.

Tasios, T. & Giannouli, V. (2017). Job Descriptive Index (JDI): Reliability and validity study in Greece. Archives of Assessment Psychology, 7(1), 31-61.

Weikamp, J.G. & Goritz, A.S. (2016). Organizational citizenship behaviour and job satisfaction: The impact of occupational future time perspective. Human Relations, 69(11) 2091–2115. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726716633512.

Yarbrough, L., Morgan, N.A., & Vorhies, D.W. (2011). The impact of product market strategy-organizational culture fit on business performance. Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science, 39, 555-573. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-010-0238-x.

Zheng, W., Zhang, M., & Li, H. (2012). Performance appraisal process and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 27(7), 732 – 752. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683941211259548.




How to Cite

Ariani, D. W. (2023). Exploring Relationship of Job Satisfaction, Organizatonal Culture, and Employee Performance in Small Medium Enterprise. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 8(2), e0876. https://doi.org/10.26668/businessreview/2023.v8i2.876