International Journal of Professional Business Review https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Professional Business Review </strong>aims to publish original research in order to contribute to the promotion and dissemination of key issues in professional business and related areas. The JPB Review is published by Open Access Publications LLC. and also it is supported by <strong>Management Institute</strong> (Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland). The <strong>JPB Review</strong>'s content aspires to be relevant and interesting to a wide readership, which adds to the understanding and discussion of professional business and academia worldwide. To be published in the <strong>JPB Review</strong>, authors must adhere to high standards of research and contribute to theory and/or practice in related areas, regardless of whether the level of analysis is the organization, region or country.</p> <p align="justify">The <strong>JPB Review</strong> challenges potential authors to produce high quality distinguished research, well grounded in theory and with high methodological rigor. The demonstration of an effective conceptual contribution will be considered in the journal's editorial process.</p> <p align="justify">To submit your paper (<strong>English, Portuguese and Spanish language</strong>), please visit the online submission page (login and download template). All articles are subject to a double-blind review process. <strong>JPB Review Journal</strong> require a Contributer ID (see <strong><a href="http://www.redalyc.org/acercadeautores.oa" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ORCID and Redalyc ID</a></strong>) for all authors. ORCID is a persistent unique identifier for researchers and functions similarly to an article’s Digital Object Identifier (DOI). ORCIDs enable accurate attribution and improved discoverability of an author’s published work. The author will need a registered ORCID in order to submit a manuscript or review a proof in this journal.</p> <p align="justify">This journal <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>is indexing and abstracting in:</strong></span> SCOPUS (ELSEVIER), REDALYC (MEXICO), AMELICA (UNESCO) Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) Ebsco Host Publishing, Cengage Gale Learning, PKP Index, Google Scholar and OpenAire (See Indexing &amp; Abstracting page).</p> <p align="justify">In the drive to succeed in its mission, in addition to the traditional editorial, the journal offers:</p> <p>• Editorial Comments</p> <p>• Articles</p> <p>• Perspectives</p> Open Access Publications LLC. en-US International Journal of Professional Business Review 2525-3654 <p>Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms: the author(s) authorize(s) the publication of the text in the journal;</p><p>The author(s) ensure(s) that the contribution is original and unpublished and that it is not in the process of evaluation by another journal;</p><p>The journal is not responsible for the views, ideas and concepts presented in articles, and these are the sole responsibility of the author(s);</p><p>The publishers reserve the right to make textual adjustments and adapt texts to meet with publication standards.</p><p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right to first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Atribuição NãoComercial 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which allows the work to be shared with recognized authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are allowed to assume additional contracts separately, for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (e.g. publish in institutional repository or as a book chapter), with recognition of authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are allowed and are encouraged to publish and distribute their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on a personal web page) at any point before or during the editorial process, as this can generate positive effects, as well as increase the impact and citations of the published work (see the effect of Free Access) at <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html">http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html</a></p> Research Overview about Competencies of Startups https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/293 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The aim of this paper was to contextualize the research scenario about startup competencies.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong> The systematic literature review was built from the content analysis of 71 papers from Web of Science and Scopus database. The papers were analyzed from descriptive, bibliographic, methodologic, results and citation characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong> From the results, it is observed that the USA is the absolute stand in studies related to startups and competencies. However, other nations also have developed relevant studies. Studies related to startups and competencies still are at a very theoretical stage, which creates a demand for the development of studies that collect and provide scientific data to the market about these enterprises.</p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: </strong> Eight competences were mapped, being constituted by three fundamental stages for the construction of a startup.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Originality/value: </strong> This article is an academic contribution that allows an understanding about research developed on startups and their competencies, considering data from two reference research databases.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Matheus Soares Noronha Lucas Fulanete Bento João Paulo Ferreira Rufino Thelma Valéria Rocha Copyright (c) 2022 Matheus Soares Noronha, Lucas Fulanete Bento, João Paulo Ferreira Rufino, Thelma Valéria Rocha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-02-02 2022-02-02 7 2 e0293 e0293 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.293 Corporate Governance, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Corporate Sustainability: The Moderating Role of Top Management Commitment https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/309 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of corporate social responsibility on corporate sustainability with the moderating role of top management.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Theoretical Framework: </strong> Even though studies have been done within an emerging market context, there has been calls to explore CSR constraints in other geographical areas. This study explores how lack of top management commitment moderates the relationship between CSR and Corporate Sustainability.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> We used non-probability sampling technique by employing convenience sampling for data collection. By employing a survey questionnaire, data were collected from 397 employees of SMEs in Ghana. The IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 25.0 and IBM's Analysis of Moments of Structures (AMOS) version 24 softwares packages were employed as analytical tools in this investigation.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Findings:</strong> Board composition, the board size, institutional ownership, and CEO- Chair duality had varying influences on economic, environmental, and social dimensions of corporate social responsibility. The moderating role of top management commitment was confirmed for the relationship between the environmental dimension of corporate social responsibility and corporate sustainability.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications:</strong> Future studies can consider other indicators of corporate governance and assess their influence on the various dimensions of CSR as well as their linkage with Corporate Sustainability. </p> <p><strong>Implications/Originality/Value:</strong> It’s concluded that corporate governance systems exhibit varying interactions with corporate social responsibility dimensions which may be due to changes in the national and institutional framework as well as economic conditions and the type of industry.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Isaac Tandoh Kwame Asare Duffour Mavis Essandoh Richard Nana Amoako Copyright (c) 2022 Kwame Duffour https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-02-03 2022-02-03 7 2 e0309 e0309 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.309 Agriculture startups (AgTechs): a bibliometric study https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/312 <p>Purpose: Conduct a bibliometric study on agricultural startups (AgTech) and the main concepts related to them in the literature. Theoretical framework: The agribusiness sector has the challenge of producing food sustainably to ensure food security for the planet's population by 2050. In this context, there is an exponential growth in investments in agriculture technology (Kakani et al., 2020). Most of these technologies are developed and marketed by AgTechs, the technological startups in agribusiness. AgTechs are expressive in the 4.0 agriculture scenario, where more precise and environmentally sustainable technologies are sought (Dutia, 2014. However, despite the growing number of AgTechs, few studies present their main concepts in the scientific literature. Design/methodology/approach: The Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases were used together with softwares: SciMAT and VOSviewer to develop the bibliometric study. The SciMAT was used to clean up raw bibliographic data, analyze, and configure the analysis. The maps generated were produced at VOSviewer and based on co-citation for the periods defined in the SciMAT. Findings: The results showed that the theme is not well consolidated in the literature, but it is in a dizzying growth, with 71.3% of the articles having been published in the last three years in 79 journals and with publications covering 44 countries. Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: the AgTech theme is consolidating in literature where digital and disruptive technologies are concerned, however, the human factors, business models, and management aspects involved in this topic are being neglected, which resulted in the proposal of a Research Agenda that can help both academics and practitioners to analyze AgTechs aspects that appear to not be in focus right now. Originality/value: The study brought important contributions to a better understanding of the term AgTech in the literature and to the improvement of concepts related to this ecosystem.</p> Jéssica Alves Justo Mendes Lucas Olegário Bueno Arthur Yassine Oliveira Mateus Cecílio Gerolamo Copyright (c) 2022 Jéssica Alves Justo Mendes, Lucas Olegário Bueno, Arthur Yassine Oliveira, Mateus Cecílio Gerolamo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 7 2 e0312 e0312 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.312 Participatory budgeting in covid-19 times: a perspective from Paraná and portuguese municipalities https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/390 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>:&nbsp; The aim of this article is to explore the barriers imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic to Participatory Budgeting (PB), considering the perspective of Brazilian and Portuguese Local Public Administration.</p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework</strong>:&nbsp; Recent literature points out that the barriers imposed on PB processes arising from the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic are justified by many leaders due to social distancing measures and the expansion of financial constraints.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong>:&nbsp; An online questionnaire was applied using a Likert-type scale to assess the perception of public officials, in Paraná and Portugal, about the barriers imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic to PB. Through a quantitative approach, data were presented and analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Chi-square test of adherence.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>:&nbsp; The survey contributors from the Portuguese municipalities indicated that the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the conduct of PB processes. The possible restrictive consequences caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on the realization of PB in the future are not clear, according to the responses obtained in the two contexts analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications</strong>:&nbsp; Future studies may include the perspective of the participants in the process and the possible reduction in the amounts available for the execution of the PB due to the pandemic of COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value</strong>:&nbsp; COVID-19 alone cannot bring citizens to the periphery of public policy decisions. Difficulties prior to the pandemic, such as the absence of an online platform contributed to limiting the participatory space.</p> Lucas Rodrigues Maciel Cláudia S. Costa Anderson Catapan Copyright (c) 2022 Lucas Rodrigues Maciel, Cláudia S. Costa, Anderson Catapan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-06-09 2022-06-09 7 2 e390 e390 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.390 Exploring the role of leadership, work environment, it alignment and company performance on the digital transformation: a study on the private sector companies in western region, Saudi Arabia https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/500 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The purpose of the study is to investigate the role of leadership, work environment, IT alignment and company performance on the digital transformation of private sector companies in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia. The research problem is the lack of studies about digital transformation in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the research question can be formulated as “what are the implications of leadership, work environment, alignment of IT processes, and company performance on the digital transformation of a company?”</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework:</strong> The framework of the study is adopted from the attributes of (1) leadership, (2) work environment, (3) IT processes alignment and (4) company performance. This framework aims to provide understanding on how these variables affect the digital transformation of a company.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Primary as well as secondary data have been collected. A survey was conducted on a sample of (461) participants through online questionnaire. The approach chosen for the study is the Quantitative Deductive Approach (QDA), and the data were analyzed using SPSS.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> The results of the study concluded that there is a significant positive correlation of leadership, work environment, alignment with IT processes and company performance on the digital transformation.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research Implications:</strong> The study verifies the influence of leadership, work environment, IT processes and company performance on the digital transformation. This is helpful on the managerial level for organizations which are willing to adopt digital transformation. On the academic scope, the study adds contribution to the literature of digital transformation in Saudi Arabia. Socially, it is significant to keep pace with the digitalization trend that is evolving rapidly in the Saudi society.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality:</strong> This study is a pioneering attempt to enhance the management practices in private sector companies to explore the role of leadership, work environment, alignment with IT processes and company performance on the digital transformation. The findings should motivate organizations to consider these variables when seeking to adopt digital transformation.</p> Nada Alasiri Zenah AlKubaisy Copyright (c) 2022 Nada Alasiri , Zenah AlKubaisy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 7 2 e0500 e0500 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.500 Future team leadership and empowerment in the performance of measuring virtual team productivity with information technology https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/501 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The purpose of this paper is to examine the virtual teams effectiveness in productivity, whether leadership and Empowerment with the relevant factors influencing the virtual team productivity are not. This study examines the virtual group in IT enterprises and their authority and strengthening of efficiency of a virtual group.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework</strong>:&nbsp; An essential method for directing business for associations to stay serious and support in a global environment. What's more, that is used in numerous kinds and sizes of associations either as a key unit or as a supporting unit. Virtual groups in Indian programming organizations stand out explicitly inside the world wide IT service sector.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> The present study is conducted by designing the set of questionnaires with respect to the leadership and empowerment of a virtual team and the performance of virtual team factors. And it is distributed to the organization, which uses a virtual team. The questionnaires were distributed to the 300 participants; only 257 responses are received from the company. From the 300 respondents, 43 responses were rejected because the response is not clear, so a total of 257 responses are taken. By using a 5-point Likert scale, the questionnaire was prepared.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Finding:</strong> The relationship between the team effectiveness, team performance, and empowering the leadership of the hypothesis are empirically tested. The result indicated that the empowerment and leadership of a virtual team enhanced the performance and productivity of a virtual team.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social Implication: </strong>The paper contributes to a better understanding of the internal processes within a virtual team in order to develop the effectiveness through Leadership and empowerment which increase the productivity.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> Notwithstanding the inescapability of overseeing virtual groups, associations find it especially provoking for virtual colleagues to display and deal with their initiative ways of behaving.</p> G. Aarthi S. Sujatha Copyright (c) 2022 G. Aarthi, S. Sujatha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-08-03 2022-08-03 7 2 e0501 e0501 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.501 Green Entrepreneurs Challenges and Innovation: The Struggles They Face https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/482 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: A green entrepreneur's enterprise prioritises environmental protection by minimising the negative impact of existing products, services, or processes. It contributes to the beneficial transformation of society. This study discusses green entrepreneur challenges and innovations in Tamil Nadu's Salem District. The intention of this study is to determine what factors determine the obstacles they experience in their business and how to transform those obstacles into opportunities</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong> Snowball sampling is employed to choose the population for this study from Salem's vast population, and the total number of respondents chosen is 50.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>Simple Percentage Analysis, Chi-Square, and the Henry Garrett Ranking Method are utilised for measuring the factors. The result of testing the hypothesis indicates that there is no correlation between age and the influence to start a business using technical or professional knowledge and skill</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Future Implications: </strong>Our work presents a range of theoretical and practical implications, as previously said, but it is not without limitations. In order to ascertain the direct and indirect effects of stakeholder demands, green dynamic capacity, green innovation, and firm performance, we first propose that future research make use of our framework and conduct a comparison study of small and large enterprises</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Rajkamal S.V J. Senthil Velmurugan M. Suryakumar Copyright (c) 2022 Rajkamal S.V, J. Senthil Velmurugan, M. Suryakumar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-08-03 2022-08-03 7 2 e0482 e0482 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.482 The Development Of Economic Potential Of People In Pandemic Through Earning Zakat Distribution https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/414 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: This research aimed to ascertain the people's economic progress throughout the pandemic via the distribution of productive zakat by BAZ/LAZ in Pekalongan.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework</strong>: Zakat has evolved as a tool for economic growth and poverty reduction among the peoples of the regions during times of economic distress (Yusroni &amp; Chadhiq, 2021). Zakat provides several benefits over the standard fiscal tools now available. Numerous ideas and theories have been advanced by specialists to address the issue of poverty (Alaro &amp; Alalubosa, 2019; Iqbal &amp; Mirakhor, 2011). However, not all ideas can be implemented and contribute to poverty reduction. It is anticipated that professional zakat administration and profitable usage would enable poverty reduction (Hoque, Khan, &amp; Mohammad, 2015).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: Field research with a qualitative approach collects, manages, and distributes zakat funds, incredibly productive zakat at BAZ/LAZ in Pekalongan City. The technique is triangulation.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: The results showed that BAZ/LAZ in Pekalongan City had implemented effective zakat distribution programs, namely BAZNAS, LAZ Al Ummah, LAZISMU, and LAZ Central Java, while LAZINU had not implemented the effective zakat program optimally. In general, BAZ/LAZ in Pekalongan City used productive zakat to promote the potential of the people via various sorts of productive zakat initiatives throughout the pandemic. The primary objective of productive zakat is similar to that of BAZ/LAZ in Pekalongan City. According to defined protocols, the productive zakat distribution model is carried out precisely and accurately.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social Implications</strong>: Despite several challenges, the distribution of productive zakat continued throughout the COVID-19 epidemic. The effective zakat program emphasizes developing diverse models via creativity and innovation for people's economic growth to avoid poverty.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/Value</strong>: The findings of the model of economic development of the people run by the mustahik also vary in the efforts carried out whose main objectives are to save, infaq, and develop businesses to avoid the problem of poverty.</p> <p> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Agus Arwani Stenly Salenussa Nurul Widyawati Islami Rahayu Muhammad Fauzinudin Faiz Pandu Adi Cakranegara Abdul Aziz Andiyan Andiyan Copyright (c) 2022 Agus Arwani, Stenly Salenussa, Nurul Widyawati Islami Rahayu, Muhammad Fauzinudin Faiz, Pandu Adi Cakranegara, Abdul Aziz, Andiyan Andiyan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-08-03 2022-08-03 7 2 e0414 e0414 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.414 Pre-investment perception of investors’ towards security market in indian context https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/416 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The security market comprises the buy and sell of the securities based on the demand. The security markets instruments comprise debt, equity, hybrid securities, and derivatives.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework:</strong>The investors perceive the adoption of the security market as necessary to examine the pre-investment in the security market.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> With the implementation and incorporation of security features, the performance of the security market is improved.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications:</strong>The analysis is based on the Indian security market scenario through data collection from 300 respondents. The data were collected through primary data collection in quantitative and qualitative approaches.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong>The examination is based on the evaluation of the framed hypothesis based on the demographic profile of the investors in the security market.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>The findings concluded that the risk associated with the security investments was subjected to security risk.</p> <p> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Venkateswarlu Chandu K. Pradeep Reddy Sambhana Srilakshmi Shifaly Copyright (c) 2022 Venkateswarlu Chandu, K. Pradeep Reddy, Sambhana Srilakshmi, Shifaly https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-08-03 2022-08-03 7 2 e0416 e0416 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.416 Testing of Semi–Strong Form of Efficiency: an Empirical Study on Stock Market Reaction Around Dividend Announcement https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/483 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of the Indian stock market of the Nifty IT index over the dividend announcement for five years from 2016 to 2020.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong>A reward procured by the shareholders on their equities is, of course, the dividend. A leading area of concern is the dividend announcement. According to the theory of efficient markets, stock prices accurately reflect all available information. This demonstrates that the prices are correct and fair. The market should therefore respond immediately to an event in this instance the dividend announcement. Therefore, depending on publicly available information will not provide investors with the possibility to consistently generate extraordinary returns.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/ methodology/ approach: </strong>The study attempts to validate the event study approach while investigating the semi-strong form of efficiency. Daily share prices of five companies out of ten of the Nifty IT index were observed to test the Efficient Market Hypothesis. 31 days event window has been employed to calculate the abnormal returns of the selected sample around dividend issue announcements also t-test was applied to assess the level of significance.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The study found that the stock market was efficient in its semi strong form and the investors could not make excess returns over the dividend announcement of the Nifty IT index.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; social implications: </strong>This study eliminates the possibility for investors to beat the average market returns. It is significant since it affects stock market investment choices.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/ Values: </strong>The majority of studies are only able to analyse the overall average abnormal return and cumulative average abnormal return of chosen companies; it is difficult to locate studies that focus on the abnormal return for each individual company. The t test for each company-wise abnormal returns, overall average abnormal returns, and cumulative average abnormal returns were acquired and tested at the 5% level of significance in order to determine the significance.</p> <p> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Prema Krishnan M. N. Periasamy Copyright (c) 2022 Prema Krishnan, M. N. Periasamy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-08-09 2022-08-09 7 2 e0483 e0483 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.483 Analyzing and measuring the long-term balance relationship between changes in government spending and real growth in Iraq for the period 1990 – 2018 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/470 <p> </p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The study Purpose to achieve to Study and analyze the reality of government spending and economic growth in Iraq through the real GDP index with and without oil.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> The authors used the changes in government spending and real growth a panel cointegration analysis and Granger causality procedure to detect the dynamic relationships between the variables for the period 1990 – 2018.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> Analyzing and measuring the impact of government spending on real economic growth with and without oil in the Iraqi economy.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: The results of the joint integration test showed that there is no long-term and short-term balance relationship between the two variables government spending and real output with oil. While it showed the existence of a long and short-term balance relationship between the two variables government spending and the real output without oil.</p> <p> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Muna Younus Hussein Copyright (c) 2022 Muna Younus Hussein https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-08-09 2022-08-09 7 2 e0470 e0470 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.470 LTE Carrier Aggregation Deployment – From Standardization to Deployment https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/354 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The objective of this research was to investigate LTE Carrier Aggregation commercial deployment and how soon it happened after standardization finalization. Because LTE Carrier Aggregation feature was expected to be important feature there is good reason to expect its deployment for real commercial markets.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong>The literature at time when standardization was ongoing predicted and speculated Carrier Aggregation feature as promising deployment selection. However there is room to investigate whether Carrier Aggregation happened shortly after standard specification work finalized. </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Used methodology was to gather network operators’ and equipment manufacturers’ intentions for LTE Carrier Aggregation commercial deployment purposes during and after standardization finalization. Information found from public sources where commercial deployment intentions launched by companies. </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The research showed that after and already before standardization finalized there were immediate intentions for LTE Carrier Aggregation deployment. Commercial trials appeared within one year and real commercial deployments appeared within two years from standardization finalization. That means soon deployments in commercial markets when considering deployment in licensed band.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: </strong>For future works there could be study why not LTE Carrier Aggregation solutions in unlicensed band was not successful and whether there will be changes when going towards 5G standard related deployments.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>This article is an academic contribution for innovation feature commercial deployment in telecommunications industry and investigation whether LTE Carrier Aggregation feature deployment happened as soon as expected.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Timo Hussa Copyright (c) 2022 Timo Hussa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 7 2 e0354 e0354 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.354 Fox’s Head or Lion’s Tail? Work Life Balance of Women Entrepreneurs in Agriculture and farm Ventures and its Antecedent Effect on Quality of Life https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/465 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The objective of this study was to identify the factors that influence work life balance of women entrepreneurs in the field of agriculture and allied products and how the family demands affect their work-life balance. Further, the paper explores the conflict between parental demand and running a business.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework</strong>: Literature review points out that despite, an increase in the number of women entrepreneurs over the years, according to the (Global entrepreneurship monitor report, 2020), fewer women pursue entrepreneurship due to various challenges of managing personal and business responsibilities and striking the right balance. Work-life balance is frequently examined in the context of human resource management (Etienne St-Jean and Duhamel M.,2020)but not much has been explored in an entreprenurial context.Hence this study is to investigate and understand the influence of various factors affecting work life balance from an entrepreneurial standpoint.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Triangulation method was used for the study by utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data. The researchers developed a questionnaire to measure work-life balance experienced by women entrepreneurs with 12 independent variables to measure the dependent variable work-life balance.The sample consisted of 450 women agripreneurs</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The findings reveal that the age of the children is a major determinant of the extent of parental demand a woman goes through in her life and family support systems are critical in reducing overlap and conflict between the life domains. A positive spillover between the domains significantly enhances quality of life of women entrepreneurs.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: </strong>We suggest a future research into other Personality traits and macro environmental factors which can have a bearing on work life balance of women entrepreneurs which would enable an inclusive entrepreneurial ecosystem.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>The researchers have concluded that positive spillover between the domains significantly enhances quality of life of women entrepreneurs.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> K. Lakshmypriya Rashmi Rai Shrinivas Kulkarni Gowri Shankar Leena James Copyright (c) 2022 K. Lakshmypriya, Rashmi Rai, Shrinivas Kulkarni, Gowri Shankar, Leena James https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-08-17 2022-08-17 7 2 e465 e465 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.465