International Journal of Professional Business Review https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Professional Business Review </strong>aims to publish original research in order to contribute to the promotion and dissemination of key issues in professional business and related areas. The JPB Review is published by Open Access Publications LLC. and also it is supported by <strong>Management Institute</strong> (Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland). The <strong>JPB Review</strong>'s content aspires to be relevant and interesting to a wide readership, which adds to the understanding and discussion of professional business and academia worldwide. To be published in the <strong>JPB Review</strong>, authors must adhere to high standards of research and contribute to theory and/or practice in related areas, regardless of whether the level of analysis is the organization, region or country.</p> <p align="justify">The <strong>JPB Review</strong> challenges potential authors to produce high quality distinguished research, well grounded in theory and with high methodological rigor. The demonstration of an effective conceptual contribution will be considered in the journal's editorial process.</p> <p align="justify">To submit your paper (<strong>English, Portuguese and Spanish language</strong>), please visit the online submission page (login and download template). All articles are subject to a double-blind review process. <strong>JPB Review Journal</strong> require a Contributer ID (see <strong><a href="http://www.redalyc.org/acercadeautores.oa" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ORCID and Redalyc ID</a></strong>) for all authors. ORCID is a persistent unique identifier for researchers and functions similarly to an article’s Digital Object Identifier (DOI). ORCIDs enable accurate attribution and improved discoverability of an author’s published work. The author will need a registered ORCID in order to submit a manuscript or review a proof in this journal.</p> <p align="justify">This journal <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>is indexing and abstracting in:</strong></span> SCOPUS (ELSEVIER), REDALYC (MEXICO), AMELICA (UNESCO) Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) Ebsco Host Publishing, Cengage Gale Learning, PKP Index, Google Scholar and OpenAire (See Indexing &amp; Abstracting page).</p> <p align="justify">In the drive to succeed in its mission, in addition to the traditional editorial, the journal offers:</p> <p>• Editorial Comments</p> <p>• Articles</p> <p>• Perspectives</p> Open Access Publications LLC. en-US International Journal of Professional Business Review 2525-3654 <p>Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms: the author(s) authorize(s) the publication of the text in the journal;</p><p>The author(s) ensure(s) that the contribution is original and unpublished and that it is not in the process of evaluation by another journal;</p><p>The journal is not responsible for the views, ideas and concepts presented in articles, and these are the sole responsibility of the author(s);</p><p>The publishers reserve the right to make textual adjustments and adapt texts to meet with publication standards.</p><p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right to first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Atribuição NãoComercial 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which allows the work to be shared with recognized authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are allowed to assume additional contracts separately, for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (e.g. publish in institutional repository or as a book chapter), with recognition of authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are allowed and are encouraged to publish and distribute their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on a personal web page) at any point before or during the editorial process, as this can generate positive effects, as well as increase the impact and citations of the published work (see the effect of Free Access) at <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html">http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html</a></p> Evaluation of Financial Management Information System Using Modification of the Delone & Mclean Model During the COVID-19 Pandemic https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/732 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This study aims to look at the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the implementation of SIMAKU, measure the success of SIMAKU implemented by the Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro from the perception of users, and see what obstacles are experienced during system implementation.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework:</strong> Accounting information system (AIS) consists of three basic elements: the system, information and accounting.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> The study uses a qualitative research approach based on the concept of "going exploring" which involves the in-depth and case-oriented study of several cases or single cases using descriptive study and case study analysis methods. Furthermore, the sources of this research amounted to 12 respondents divided into two, namely: information users and data inputs.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The results of the study concluded that the Covid-19 pandemic did not have a significant effect on the implementation of the work unit program within the UMM and the implementation of the SIMAKU UMM application as a whole was quite good.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications:</strong> The benefit of this research is to evaluate the implementation of the Financial Management Information System (SIMAKU) which has been used at the UMM for more than five years so that this system can continue to be useful for its users on an ongoing basis.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Implications/Originality/Value:</strong> The originality of this study is examines the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on SIMAKU implementation and identifies errors in the implementation of successful systems and information systems models in user or user perception used by (DeLone &amp; McLean, 2003).</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Nedi Hendri Kamila Sa’diah I Wayan Gede Antok Setiawan Jodi Arif Hidayat Siti Wardah Pratidina Nasution Sari Mujiani Copyright (c) 2022 Nedi Hendri, Kamila Sa’diah, I Wayan Gede Antok Setiawan Jodi, Arif Hidayat, Siti Wardah Pratidina Nasution, Sari Mujiani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 7 5 e0732 e0732 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.e732 The Significance, Role, and Need for Public Sector Enterprises in Economic Growth https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/582 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The purpose of this article is to investigate the role that the public sector plays in the process of creating financial resources for economic growth and employment opportunities.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong>One technique to envision the public sector is as an ascending ring of institutions, with the central government at the center, followed by agencies and public corporations. Companies that are either directly or indirectly affiliated with the government and are publicly traded surround the ring.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>This is descriptive based study. In this research paper we survey on random sample of private sectors companies data.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>As a result, it offers job prospects, which adds to the increase of a nation's financial resources. The public sector is the component of the global economy responsible for supplying important services such as infrastructure, public transit, education reform, and security services such as the military and law enforcement.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The scope of government action can now be described in relation to the whole economy. Just one example of the various ways in which the public sector can contribute to economic development is the provision of health and educational services by the public sector, which combined make up a large percentage of the Human Development Index.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Roshan Baa Ajay Kumar Chattoraj Copyright (c) 2022 Roshan Baa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 7 5 e0582 e0582 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.e582 A study on the contribution that a business plan makes to the expansion of a small company https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/585 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of business plan in the expansion of small company. No matter how big or small a business is or what stage it is in,it needs a business plan to improve how it runs internally and to describe and market the business to possible outside investors.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework:</strong> A business plan gives the company direction and brings employees together to work towards the same goals. When everyone works together, it's easier to manage time and resources and set the company up for growth. Planning is a big part of how successful a new or small business will be. Setting goals and making plans to reach those goals are two important parts of running a successful business. A business plan is a good way for a company to organize its goals and objectives in a way that makes sense.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> This is descriptive based study. In this research paper we survey on random sample of 250 respondents.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>This study reveals the descriptive statistics for different variables i.e. Business planning, Completed plan, Number of employees, Obtained external capital, Attractive products etc. The findings of this study could be used to figure out how businesses should be run, what methods should be used, and what parameters should be used to make sure businesses grow well in their local, regional, and global areas.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In more rural and remote parts of the country, the expansion of small companies is essential to the continued employment creation and economic expansion. They contribute to a greater level of market competition.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Roshan Baa Copyright (c) 2022 Roshan Baa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 7 5 e0585 e0585 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.e585 The Income Smoothing Hypothesis, Stock Return, and Risk https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/708 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This study aims to hypothesize the companies that apply income smoothing to Industry trade, services, and investment on Indonesia Stock Exchange.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework:</strong> Theoretical basis of the income smoothing hypothesis was used to examine the differences in stock returns between the trading, service, and investment industries that apply income smoothing on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. Test differences in stock risk between the trading, service, and investment industries that apply income smoothing and the trading, service, and investment industries do not determine income smoothing on the Indonesia Stock Exchange.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> The<sup>0 1</sup>method<sup>0 1</sup>used<sup>0 1</sup>in<sup>0 1</sup>this<sup>0 1</sup>study<sup>0 1</sup>is<sup>0 1</sup>a<sup>0 1</sup>comparative<sup>0 1</sup>descriptive<sup>0 1</sup>method.<sup>0 1</sup>The<sup>0 1</sup>analysis<sup>0 1</sup>used<sup>0 1</sup>is<sup>0 1</sup>descriptive<sup>0 1</sup>analysis,<sup>0 1</sup>normality<sup>0 1</sup>test,<sup>0 1</sup>and<sup>0 1</sup>t-test<sup>0 1</sup>to<sup>0 1</sup>conclude<sup>0 1</sup>whether<sup>0 1</sup>there<sup>0 1</sup>are<sup>0 1</sup>differences<sup>0 1</sup>in<sup>0 1</sup>the<sup>0 1</sup>treatment<sup>0 1</sup>of<sup>0 1</sup>these<sup>0 1</sup>variables.<sup>0 1</sup>In<sup>0 1</sup>addition,<sup>0 1</sup>it<sup>0 1</sup>also<sup>0 1</sup>calculates<sup>0 1</sup>the<sup>0 1</sup>actual<sup>0 1</sup>return<sup>0 1</sup>and<sup>0 1</sup>risk<sup>0 1</sup>of<sup>0 1</sup>the<sup>0 1</sup>issuer’s<sup>0 1</sup>shares<sup>0 1</sup>in<sup>0 1</sup>the<sup>0 1</sup>trading,<sup>0 1</sup>service,<sup>0 1</sup>and<sup>0 1</sup>investment<sup>0 1</sup>industries<sup>0 1</sup>on<sup>0 1</sup>the<sup>0 1</sup>Indonesia<sup>0 1</sup>Stock<sup>0 1</sup>Exchange.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>There is no significant difference between company returns and profits and returns of non-profit companies in trading, service, and investment sector companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. In addition, there is no significant difference between the shares of risk separator companies and the risk returns of non-company shares in trading, service, and investment companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: </strong>The average risk level of companies that do income smoothing is lower than the average risk level of companies that do not. The level of risk in shares is a description of the volatility of share prices. The higher the variation in stock prices, the higher the risk investors face.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>The study highlighted that changes in the information that occurs on a company’s profitability in various ways would be more likely to impact the follow-up of information users, including the application of income smoothing.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Muhammad Yunus Kasim Juliana Kadang Djayani Nurdin Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Yunus Kasim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 7 5 e0708 e0708 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.e708 Antecedents of the Accountability in Indonesian Local Government Financial Reporting https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/709 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This study aims to analyze the role of the government’s budget supervision on financial accountability to reduce fraud against the local government budgets.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong>The theoretical framework from Gabrini (2013) highlights the importance for organizations to design and manage financial reports and audits to maintain legitimacy, along with the increasing demands for transparency and accountability of public organizations today.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> To achieve this goal, the data used in this study is secondary data sourced from the central and regional government’s auditing board between 2016 to 2019.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The results showed that budget supervision negatively affects the accountability of local government financial reports. Moreover, a follow-up audit has a negative effect on the fraud against the local government budget and has a positive effect on financial accountability. The results also demonstrated a negative effect of financial accountability on the fraud against local government budget.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: </strong>As the implication, the government is expected to draft an implementing regulation as a technical guideline to avoid fraud against the government budget. In order to encourage an increase in the target of unqualified opinions, it is expected that the central government can provide incentive funds to regional governments that get unqualified opinions to maximize their capacity to increase financial accountability.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>This research is among the first in empirically examinating the full mediating effect of financial accountability in the relationship between budget supervision and the fraud against local government budget in Indonesia.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> M. Ikbal Abdullah Sudirman Rahma Masdar Muhammad Din Muhammad Fikram Firman Copyright (c) 2022 M. Ikbal Abdullah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 7 5 e0709 e0709 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.e709 Discontinuity in Auditing: A Study in Foucauldian Perspective https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/710 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This study aims to determine the form of discontinuity in auditing, related to the provision of an opinion on a financial report.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong>Foucaldian perspective is used to examine the disclosure of the form of discontinuity as it is preconceived as an effort to uncover the 'other' truth that surrounds a subject, object and event in the auditing process. Meanwhile, the audit opinion is 'proxied' as a result of construction that has gone through a process of interaction between the auditor and the auditee in a social arena.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> This is done through critical reading of discursive events when the audit of the regional government financial statements is carried out by the auditors of the Supreme Audit Agency.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The results showed that disclosure of discontinuity in auditing is possible. Foucault's concept of power/knowledge is able to touch the workings of the profession in producing a discontinuity. The tendency of asymmetry of knowledge of auditor vis a vis auditee, especially in the public sector – as exemplified by Foucault; doctors and their patients - can be a way to focus on forms of discontinuity in producing audit opinions on local government financial statements.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: </strong>A discursive event confronts the auditor vis a vis auditee when an audited local government financial report opinion is produced. The methodology used in this reading is Foucault's philosophy through his conception of discontinuity.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>The findings proposed the originality in which Foucaldian perspective can be useful to explore the link between local government financial report and discursive events.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Muhammad Ikbal Abdullah Muhammad Iqbal Masruddin Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Ikbal Abdullah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 7 5 e0710 e0710 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.e710 Capital Solutions to Promote Fleet Investment in Shipping in Countries Such as Vietnam https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/738 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Research on capital solutions to develop the fleet in Vietnam's shipping enterprises from 2022 to 2030.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value</strong>: The research sample is the fleet of boats that Vietnamese shipping enterprises registered at the Vietnam Maritime Administration from 2011 – 2018. </p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong>: Using Qualitative Research (Statistical Analysis Methods; System analysis; Expert interview methods) and quantitative research methods (Comparative methods; Methods of analysis of indicators).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: Based on the research, the author offers several discussions and recommendations on capital solutions to promote investment and development of the fleet in Vietnam's shipping.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Vu Thi Hoang Yen Copyright (c) 2022 Vu Thi Hoang Yen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 7 5 e0738 e0738 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.e738 Activating the role of judicial oversight in Iraq to reduce the phenomenon of tax evasion Field research in the Federal Office of Financial Supervision https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/765 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>Security measures have become increasingly important due to the expansion of the cyber environments. National and international entities are exposing themselves to cybersecurity risks, and they are growing in number every day.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework: </strong>With a comprehensive cybersecurity plan, threats can be eliminated. Implementing this plan is possible by involving all stakeholders in the management processes because the idea of management is insufficient. To ensure cybersecurity, this study highlights the significance of cybersecurity and cybergovernance in the digital world.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Design: </strong>The study findings and recommendations for cybersecurity governance were reviewed. A scoping review research model was used for this purpose.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong>A basic and documentary research model related to research philosophy were developed for the application technique. The scope of the research includes publications from Scopus. Studies from the last ten years were downloaded using the selected keywords.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality: </strong>The results show that despite research that has led to local cybersecurity governance solutions in several countries, a comprehensive governance framework has not yet been established. Instead, there is a hidden conflict over control of this region, not its governance.”</p> <p> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Bushra Hassan Mohamed El-Toby Waad Hadi Abd Akeel Dakheel Kareem Copyright (c) 2022 Bushra Hassan Mohamed El-Toby, Waad Hadi Abd, Akeel Dakheel Kareem https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 7 5 e0765 e0765 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.e765 Financial and Economic Security in the Field of Financial Markets at the Stage of European Integration https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/835 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: the aim of this article is to study the features of the financial and economic security of the integrated financial market of the EU</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework</strong>: the concept of financial security was considered as a complex multi-tiered system. The theories of healthy competitive investment environment, and theory of capital markets functioning were employed in the study.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: the instrumental and methodological apparatus of the work is based on the use of general methods of scientific knowledge: comparison, abstraction, analysis and synthesis. Dialectical metod was used, as well as formal-logical, problem-theoretical, systemic-structural, and the method of comparative legal analysis.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: the EU has achieved noticeable success in providing economic security of financial markets over the past decades. The EU experience in this area can be considered the most complete. The uniqueness of this experience is also proven by the fact that it is based on national achievements and the centuries-old financial culture of the EU member states, among which several states are rightfully recognized as global financial players and have the status of international financial centers.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical and Social Implications</strong>: For global expert and regulators community, turning to the EU experience is not only valuable, but also relevant, under the necessity to consider the best world practices when creating a common financial market.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/Value</strong>: the EU experience in the field of financial and economic security of financial markets is systematized not at the level of individual EU members, but at the level of EU as a community in whole.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Anatolii Novak Oleksander Pravdyvets Oleksandr Chornyi Liudmyla Sumbaieva Liudmyla Akimova Oleksandr Akimov Copyright (c) 2022 Anatolii Novak, Oleksander Pravdyvets, Oleksandr Chornyi, Liudmyla Sumbaieva, Liudmyla Akimova, Oleksandr Akimov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 7 5 e0835 e0835 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.e835 Administrative Corruption: Causes and Solutions Special Reference to Iraq https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/1015 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>&nbsp;Corruption has brought down countless civilizations, empires, governments, and regimes in human history. This phenomenon's duration is unknown. Corruption and saboteurs are everywhere. They impede the administration from doing its job.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework: </strong>&nbsp;It has allowed these corrupt categories to expand in the public sector after Iraq's recent events, especially after the 2003 salary shift. In their view, high living costs and currency volatility justified the spoilers. Without administrative and auditing controls, managing and curing corruption is difficult.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The methods used to combat corruption are almost insufficient or have become obsolete. If there are any, no steps are taken to impress others and encourage the corrupt person to repeat his actions and habits to make money.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>&nbsp;Iraq is one of the least corrupt nations, according to Transparency Organization. Iraq ranks 168-170 on the list of corrupt nations, therefore growth is gradual. We suggested that rewards and penalties should be activated reasonably. Gifts of praise or other symbols can boost employee loyalty.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results :</strong> Administrative and financial corruption are discussed. Increased political, economic, social, and administrative factors. Infectious. This issue must be fixed to boost economic growth. Trying to make money or moral gains through illegal or unethical means undermines all countries and cultures, rich or poor, educated or not, strong or weak. Embezzlement, bribery, and nepotism are hidden. People and governments are corrupt, says Transparency International. Harmful secrecy. Socialization, religion, and poverty cause corruption. Corruption, especially in Iraq, and unstable, rapidly changing regimes with selfish goals cause it.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Originality: </strong>The research is on a novel topic and no such research has been undertaken in the past. Moreover, the study has deeply deconstructed the overall phenomenon of Iraq.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Maha Farooq Ezzat Al-rubaye Copyright (c) 2022 Maha Farooq Ezzat Al-rubaye https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-11-29 2022-11-29 7 5 e01015 e01015 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.e1015 The Effect of Customer Profitability on Strategic Cost Choices for Iraqi Banking Institutions https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/733 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> the aim of this research is to find out the extent of compatibility between the strategy adopted by the Iraqi private banks and the trends of the customers of these banks<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework:</strong> Although the study was conducted in the Iraqi economic environment, its applications can be implemented in different environments, whether at the level of different countries or different sectors.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> The data was collected through the establishment of two types of questionnaire, the first type is for banks, as 100 forms were distributed, and the second type is specific to the customers of those banks, as 1000 forms were distributed. And to conduct the necessary analysis, the researchers used the statistical analysis program SPSS V.24.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>Through the statistical analysis of the questionnaire, it was found that there is a clear difference between the strategic orientations of the Iraqi banks that focus on the cost strategy on the one hand, and the orientations of the customers of those banks who prefer the differentiation strategy.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications:</strong> More future studies can be conducted to determine the extent of compatibility between the strategic directions of companies in different sectors with the orientations of the customers of those companies.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Implications/Originality/Value:</strong> The study provides a good way to identify the success of the company's strategy in achieving the desires of customers, and thus achieve a higher level of loyalty of these customers towards the company.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Mohanad Mohamed AlMudhafar Mohanad Hadi AlHawazi Copyright (c) 2022 Mohanad Mohamed AlMudhafar, Mohanad Hadi AlHawazi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 7 5 e0733 e0733 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.733 Student Stress and Its Association With Student Performance and Psychological Well-Being: an Empirical Study on Higher Academic Education Students in And Around Hyderabad Metro https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/753 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The authors report the results of an empirical study carried out by gathering data from the students of higher academic education institutes. This empirical study investigates if students of higher academic institutes experience stress in general and the factors associated with student stress.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong>This empirical research assessed student stress and its effect on the psychological well-being and performance of students from higher academic institutions following the Thoretical fraework of Anderson (2015) and Prasad et al. (2020)</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>The data were collected using structured undisguised questionnaire and was published on google forms using Likert-type 12-item stress scale, 5-item performance scale, and 18-item Ryff’s scale were used to gather the data. The response from 848 respondents were subjected to data analysis.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The results from the general linear model indicate that the effect of stress on student performance and psychological well-being is statistically significant. The influence of stress on performance (p&lt;0.001) and psychological well-being stub-scales autonomy (p&lt;0.001), environment mastery (p&lt;0.05), and purpose of life (p&lt;0.05) are statistically significant. Whereas the model indicates no statistically significant results among gender and age groups.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: </strong>The results indicate moderate stress and its effect on psychological well-being of student community. The performance of the students also being affected. The academic institutes should develop strategies to mitigate the stress and its ill effects. The students will be benefited from Yoga and Meditation.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>This is the first study on students stress and its effect of students psychological well-being and performance in India drawing the sample from higher academic institutes</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> KDV PRASAD Ria Mookerjee Ridhi Rani Ved Srinivas Copyright (c) 2022 KDV PRASAD, Ria Mookerjee, Ridhi Rani, Ved Srinivas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 7 5 e0753 e0753 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.753 Gamification Framework With Reference to Business Perspective https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/702 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The purpose of this manuscript is to develop and present a gamification framework with eight gamifying mechanics for the business environment and delineate how these mechanisms are different in-game and business/workplace considering gamification as an application of games in non-gaming contexts.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong> The gamification mechanics has eight framework elements –meaning, accomplishment, ownership, scarcity, employment, social influence, unpredictability, and avoidance. Each framework element has 4 sub-elements. Every framework element has described in detail where do they appear in the game vs where do they appear in the business/workplace and their relevance.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>The eight-element gamification mechanics framework developed considering the business in e-commerce industry. Each and framework element was dissected and developed considering in business/workplace environment in parallel with the gaming environment under non-gaming contexts.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong> The study resulted in the development gamification mechanics framework for a business environment which can be applied in any business environment and workplace.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: </strong> The developed gamification mechanics framework can be used in any business environment/workplace for performance improvement and enhancing employee engagement. We have provided a detailed description of each gamification mechanics framework element, however. The sub-elements may vary from organization to organization and business to business. Before applying this framework the organization should review the framework along with the organization business goals and decide the course of action.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>The study offers the business and other organization to implement the gamification framework with eight elements for organizational growth, employee engagement</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> KDV PRASAD Mruthyanjaya Rao Mangipudi Rajesh Vaidya Copyright (c) 2022 KDV PRASAD https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 7 5 e0702 e0702 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.702 Model of Productive Islamic Social Fund Management for Poor Empowerment https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/597 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: It aims to increase its benefits to realize community welfare and poverty reduction. This research develops a productive Islamic social fund management model for the empowerment of the poor.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong> According to Sartika (2008), poverty is a great danger for humanity, and few people fall for their civilization only because of it. Islam, as Ad-In, offers several doctrines for humans that apply universally with two-dimensional characteristics, including happiness and prosperity in the world and hereafter.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>This study uses an exploratory and qualitative constructive approach. It is to develop models of interaction, integration, and innovation in the management of productive zakat, infaq, and shadaqah funds. Data collection methods include interviews, documentation, and observation. The data was analyzed using the Miles &amp; Huberman (1994) approach, which consists of the collection, reduction, display, and conclusion drawing/verification.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong> BAZNAS Lumajang Regency, Indonesia, approximately implements the three-circle model of empowering <em>amil</em> zakat institutions. The first circle, which is an increasingly significant fundraising activity, is carried out successfully by BAZNAS Lumajang Regency in Indonesia. This is indicated by the increasing number of Islamic social funds yearly. The second circle, which is an Islamic social fund distribution activity enlarges due to the excellent interaction between BAZNAS management and <em>mustahik</em> / Islamic social fund recipients by direct or indirect means</p> <p>.</p> <p>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: Studies have focused on productive economic activities to develop a productive Islamic social fund management model. This model explains how BAZNAS or other amil Zakat institutions distribute Islamic social funds from Zakat and <em>infaq</em> to empower the poor and alleviate poverty. All BAZNAS and LAZ Indonesia should use the three-circle model combined with a productive Islamic social fund management model to successfully empowered the poor. Further researchers need to do testing and developing a model of Islamic social fund management model.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> The studies construct a model of Islamic social fund management consist of integration, interaction and innovation approaches.</p> <p> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Ahmad Roziq Yulinartati Norita Citra Yuliarti Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmad Roziq, Yulinartati Yulinartati, Norita Citra Yuliarti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-12-03 2022-12-03 7 5 e0597 e0597 10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i5.e597