International Journal of Professional Business Review https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Professional Business Review </strong>aims to publish original research in order to contribute to the promotion and dissemination of key issues in professional business and related areas. The JPB Review is published by Open Access Publications LLC. and also it is supported by <strong>Management Institute</strong> (Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland). The <strong>JPB Review</strong>'s content aspires to be relevant and interesting to a wide readership, which adds to the understanding and discussion of professional business and academia worldwide. To be published in the <strong>JPB Review</strong>, authors must adhere to high standards of research and contribute to theory and/or practice in related areas, regardless of whether the level of analysis is the organization, region or country.</p> <p align="justify">The <strong>JPB Review</strong> challenges potential authors to produce high quality distinguished research, well grounded in theory and with high methodological rigor. The demonstration of an effective conceptual contribution will be considered in the journal's editorial process.</p> <p align="justify">To submit your paper (<strong>English, Portuguese and Spanish language</strong>), please visit the online submission page (login and download template). All articles are subject to a double-blind review process. <strong>JPB Review Journal</strong> require a Contributer ID (see <strong><a href="http://www.redalyc.org/acercadeautores.oa" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ORCID and Redalyc ID</a></strong>) for all authors. ORCID is a persistent unique identifier for researchers and functions similarly to an article’s Digital Object Identifier (DOI). ORCIDs enable accurate attribution and improved discoverability of an author’s published work. The author will need a registered ORCID in order to submit a manuscript or review a proof in this journal.</p> <p align="justify">This journal <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>is indexing and abstracting in:</strong></span> SCOPUS (ELSEVIER), REDALYC (MEXICO), AMELICA (UNESCO) Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) Ebsco Host Publishing, Cengage Gale Learning, PKP Index, Google Scholar and OpenAire (See Indexing &amp; Abstracting page).</p> <p align="justify">In the drive to succeed in its mission, in addition to the traditional editorial, the journal offers:</p> <p>• Editorial Comments</p> <p>• Articles</p> <p>• Perspectives</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms: the author(s) authorize(s) the publication of the text in the journal;</p><p>The author(s) ensure(s) that the contribution is original and unpublished and that it is not in the process of evaluation by another journal;</p><p>The journal is not responsible for the views, ideas and concepts presented in articles, and these are the sole responsibility of the author(s);</p><p>The publishers reserve the right to make textual adjustments and adapt texts to meet with publication standards.</p><p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right to first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Atribuição NãoComercial 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which allows the work to be shared with recognized authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are allowed to assume additional contracts separately, for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (e.g. publish in institutional repository or as a book chapter), with recognition of authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are allowed and are encouraged to publish and distribute their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on a personal web page) at any point before or during the editorial process, as this can generate positive effects, as well as increase the impact and citations of the published work (see the effect of Free Access) at <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html">http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html</a></p> jpbreview@openaccesspublications.org (Editorial team) jpbreview@openaccesspublications.org (Editorial Staff) Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0300 OJS 3.2.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Research Overview about Competencies of Startups https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/293 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The aim of this paper was to contextualize the research scenario about startup competencies.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong> The systematic literature review was built from the content analysis of 71 papers from Web of Science and Scopus database. The papers were analyzed from descriptive, bibliographic, methodologic, results and citation characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong> From the results, it is observed that the USA is the absolute stand in studies related to startups and competencies. However, other nations also have developed relevant studies. Studies related to startups and competencies still are at a very theoretical stage, which creates a demand for the development of studies that collect and provide scientific data to the market about these enterprises.</p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: </strong> Eight competences were mapped, being constituted by three fundamental stages for the construction of a startup.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Originality/value: </strong> This article is an academic contribution that allows an understanding about research developed on startups and their competencies, considering data from two reference research databases.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Matheus Soares Noronha, Lucas Fulanete Bento, João Paulo Ferreira Rufino, Thelma Valéria Rocha Copyright (c) 2022 Matheus Soares Noronha, Lucas Fulanete Bento, João Paulo Ferreira Rufino, Thelma Valéria Rocha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/293 Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Corporate Governance, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Corporate Sustainability: The Moderating Role of Top Management Commitment https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/309 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of corporate social responsibility on corporate sustainability with the moderating role of top management.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Theoretical Framework: </strong> Even though studies have been done within an emerging market context, there has been calls to explore CSR constraints in other geographical areas. This study explores how lack of top management commitment moderates the relationship between CSR and Corporate Sustainability.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> We used non-probability sampling technique by employing convenience sampling for data collection. By employing a survey questionnaire, data were collected from 397 employees of SMEs in Ghana. The IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 25.0 and IBM's Analysis of Moments of Structures (AMOS) version 24 softwares packages were employed as analytical tools in this investigation.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Findings:</strong> Board composition, the board size, institutional ownership, and CEO- Chair duality had varying influences on economic, environmental, and social dimensions of corporate social responsibility. The moderating role of top management commitment was confirmed for the relationship between the environmental dimension of corporate social responsibility and corporate sustainability.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications:</strong> Future studies can consider other indicators of corporate governance and assess their influence on the various dimensions of CSR as well as their linkage with Corporate Sustainability. </p> <p><strong>Implications/Originality/Value:</strong> It’s concluded that corporate governance systems exhibit varying interactions with corporate social responsibility dimensions which may be due to changes in the national and institutional framework as well as economic conditions and the type of industry.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Isaac Tandoh, Kwame Asare Duffour, Mavis Essandoh, Richard Nana Amoako Copyright (c) 2022 Isaac Tandoh, Kwame Asare Duffour, Mavis Essandoh, Richard Nana Amoako https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/309 Thu, 03 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Agriculture startups (AgTechs): a bibliometric study https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/312 <p>Purpose: Conduct a bibliometric study on agricultural startups (AgTech) and the main concepts related to them in the literature. Theoretical framework: The agribusiness sector has the challenge of producing food sustainably to ensure food security for the planet's population by 2050. In this context, there is an exponential growth in investments in agriculture technology (Kakani et al., 2020). Most of these technologies are developed and marketed by AgTechs, the technological startups in agribusiness. AgTechs are expressive in the 4.0 agriculture scenario, where more precise and environmentally sustainable technologies are sought (Dutia, 2014. However, despite the growing number of AgTechs, few studies present their main concepts in the scientific literature. Design/methodology/approach: The Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases were used together with softwares: SciMAT and VOSviewer to develop the bibliometric study. The SciMAT was used to clean up raw bibliographic data, analyze, and configure the analysis. The maps generated were produced at VOSviewer and based on co-citation for the periods defined in the SciMAT. Findings: The results showed that the theme is not well consolidated in the literature, but it is in a dizzying growth, with 71.3% of the articles having been published in the last three years in 79 journals and with publications covering 44 countries. Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: the AgTech theme is consolidating in literature where digital and disruptive technologies are concerned, however, the human factors, business models, and management aspects involved in this topic are being neglected, which resulted in the proposal of a Research Agenda that can help both academics and practitioners to analyze AgTechs aspects that appear to not be in focus right now. Originality/value: The study brought important contributions to a better understanding of the term AgTech in the literature and to the improvement of concepts related to this ecosystem.</p> Jéssica Alves Justo Mendes, Lucas Olegário Bueno, Arthur Yassine Oliveira, Mateus Cecílio Gerolamo Copyright (c) 2022 Jéssica Alves Justo Mendes, Lucas Olegário Bueno, Arthur Yassine Oliveira, Mateus Cecílio Gerolamo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/312 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Participatory budgeting in covid-19 times: a perspective from Paraná and portuguese municipalities https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/390 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>:&nbsp; The aim of this article is to explore the barriers imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic to Participatory Budgeting (PB), considering the perspective of Brazilian and Portuguese Local Public Administration.</p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework</strong>:&nbsp; Recent literature points out that the barriers imposed on PB processes arising from the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic are justified by many leaders due to social distancing measures and the expansion of financial constraints.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong>:&nbsp; An online questionnaire was applied using a Likert-type scale to assess the perception of public officials, in Paraná and Portugal, about the barriers imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic to PB. Through a quantitative approach, data were presented and analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Chi-square test of adherence.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>:&nbsp; The survey contributors from the Portuguese municipalities indicated that the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the conduct of PB processes. The possible restrictive consequences caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on the realization of PB in the future are not clear, according to the responses obtained in the two contexts analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications</strong>:&nbsp; Future studies may include the perspective of the participants in the process and the possible reduction in the amounts available for the execution of the PB due to the pandemic of COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value</strong>:&nbsp; COVID-19 alone cannot bring citizens to the periphery of public policy decisions. Difficulties prior to the pandemic, such as the absence of an online platform contributed to limiting the participatory space.</p> Lucas Rodrigues Maciel, Cláudia S. Costa, Anderson Catapan Copyright (c) 2022 Lucas Rodrigues Maciel, Cláudia S. Costa, Anderson Catapan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/390 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Exploring the role of leadership, work environment, it alignment and company performance on the digital transformation: a study on the private sector companies in western region, Saudi Arabia https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/500 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The purpose of the study is to investigate the role of leadership, work environment, IT alignment and company performance on the digital transformation of private sector companies in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia. The research problem is the lack of studies about digital transformation in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the research question can be formulated as “what are the implications of leadership, work environment, alignment of IT processes, and company performance on the digital transformation of a company?”</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework:</strong> The framework of the study is adopted from the attributes of (1) leadership, (2) work environment, (3) IT processes alignment and (4) company performance. This framework aims to provide understanding on how these variables affect the digital transformation of a company.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Primary as well as secondary data have been collected. A survey was conducted on a sample of (461) participants through online questionnaire. The approach chosen for the study is the Quantitative Deductive Approach (QDA), and the data were analyzed using SPSS.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> The results of the study concluded that there is a significant positive correlation of leadership, work environment, alignment with IT processes and company performance on the digital transformation.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research Implications:</strong> The study verifies the influence of leadership, work environment, IT processes and company performance on the digital transformation. This is helpful on the managerial level for organizations which are willing to adopt digital transformation. On the academic scope, the study adds contribution to the literature of digital transformation in Saudi Arabia. Socially, it is significant to keep pace with the digitalization trend that is evolving rapidly in the Saudi society.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality:</strong> This study is a pioneering attempt to enhance the management practices in private sector companies to explore the role of leadership, work environment, alignment with IT processes and company performance on the digital transformation. The findings should motivate organizations to consider these variables when seeking to adopt digital transformation.</p> Nada Alasiri , Zenah AlKubaisy Copyright (c) 2022 Nada Alasiri , Zenah AlKubaisy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/500 Tue, 02 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Future team leadership and empowerment in the performance of measuring virtual team productivity with information technology https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/501 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The purpose of this paper is to examine the virtual teams effectiveness in productivity, whether leadership and Empowerment with the relevant factors influencing the virtual team productivity are not. This study examines the virtual group in IT enterprises and their authority and strengthening of efficiency of a virtual group.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework</strong>:&nbsp; An essential method for directing business for associations to stay serious and support in a global environment. What's more, that is used in numerous kinds and sizes of associations either as a key unit or as a supporting unit. Virtual groups in Indian programming organizations stand out explicitly inside the world wide IT service sector.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> The present study is conducted by designing the set of questionnaires with respect to the leadership and empowerment of a virtual team and the performance of virtual team factors. And it is distributed to the organization, which uses a virtual team. The questionnaires were distributed to the 300 participants; only 257 responses are received from the company. From the 300 respondents, 43 responses were rejected because the response is not clear, so a total of 257 responses are taken. By using a 5-point Likert scale, the questionnaire was prepared.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Finding:</strong> The relationship between the team effectiveness, team performance, and empowering the leadership of the hypothesis are empirically tested. The result indicated that the empowerment and leadership of a virtual team enhanced the performance and productivity of a virtual team.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social Implication: </strong>The paper contributes to a better understanding of the internal processes within a virtual team in order to develop the effectiveness through Leadership and empowerment which increase the productivity.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> Notwithstanding the inescapability of overseeing virtual groups, associations find it especially provoking for virtual colleagues to display and deal with their initiative ways of behaving.</p> G. Aarthi, S. Sujatha Copyright (c) 2022 G. Aarthi, S. Sujatha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/501 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Green Entrepreneurs Challenges and Innovation: The Struggles They Face https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/482 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: A green entrepreneur's enterprise prioritises environmental protection by minimising the negative impact of existing products, services, or processes. It contributes to the beneficial transformation of society. This study discusses green entrepreneur challenges and innovations in Tamil Nadu's Salem District. The intention of this study is to determine what factors determine the obstacles they experience in their business and how to transform those obstacles into opportunities</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong> Snowball sampling is employed to choose the population for this study from Salem's vast population, and the total number of respondents chosen is 50.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>Simple Percentage Analysis, Chi-Square, and the Henry Garrett Ranking Method are utilised for measuring the factors. The result of testing the hypothesis indicates that there is no correlation between age and the influence to start a business using technical or professional knowledge and skill</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Future Implications: </strong>Our work presents a range of theoretical and practical implications, as previously said, but it is not without limitations. In order to ascertain the direct and indirect effects of stakeholder demands, green dynamic capacity, green innovation, and firm performance, we first propose that future research make use of our framework and conduct a comparison study of small and large enterprises</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Rajkamal S.V, J. Senthil Velmurugan, M. Suryakumar Copyright (c) 2022 Rajkamal S.V, J. Senthil Velmurugan, M. Suryakumar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/482 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 The Development Of Economic Potential Of People In Pandemic Through Earning Zakat Distribution https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/414 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: This research aimed to ascertain the people's economic progress throughout the pandemic via the distribution of productive zakat by BAZ/LAZ in Pekalongan.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework</strong>: Zakat has evolved as a tool for economic growth and poverty reduction among the peoples of the regions during times of economic distress (Yusroni &amp; Chadhiq, 2021). Zakat provides several benefits over the standard fiscal tools now available. Numerous ideas and theories have been advanced by specialists to address the issue of poverty (Alaro &amp; Alalubosa, 2019; Iqbal &amp; Mirakhor, 2011). However, not all ideas can be implemented and contribute to poverty reduction. It is anticipated that professional zakat administration and profitable usage would enable poverty reduction (Hoque, Khan, &amp; Mohammad, 2015).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: Field research with a qualitative approach collects, manages, and distributes zakat funds, incredibly productive zakat at BAZ/LAZ in Pekalongan City. The technique is triangulation.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: The results showed that BAZ/LAZ in Pekalongan City had implemented effective zakat distribution programs, namely BAZNAS, LAZ Al Ummah, LAZISMU, and LAZ Central Java, while LAZINU had not implemented the effective zakat program optimally. In general, BAZ/LAZ in Pekalongan City used productive zakat to promote the potential of the people via various sorts of productive zakat initiatives throughout the pandemic. The primary objective of productive zakat is similar to that of BAZ/LAZ in Pekalongan City. According to defined protocols, the productive zakat distribution model is carried out precisely and accurately.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social Implications</strong>: Despite several challenges, the distribution of productive zakat continued throughout the COVID-19 epidemic. The effective zakat program emphasizes developing diverse models via creativity and innovation for people's economic growth to avoid poverty.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/Value</strong>: The findings of the model of economic development of the people run by the mustahik also vary in the efforts carried out whose main objectives are to save, infaq, and develop businesses to avoid the problem of poverty.</p> <p> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Agus Arwani, Stenly Salenussa, Nurul Widyawati Islami Rahayu, Muhammad Fauzinudin Faiz, Pandu Adi Cakranegara, Abdul Aziz, Andiyan Andiyan Copyright (c) 2022 Agus Arwani, Stenly Salenussa, Nurul Widyawati Islami Rahayu, Muhammad Fauzinudin Faiz, Pandu Adi Cakranegara, Abdul Aziz, Andiyan Andiyan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/414 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Pre-investment perception of investors’ towards security market in indian context https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/416 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The security market comprises the buy and sell of the securities based on the demand. The security markets instruments comprise debt, equity, hybrid securities, and derivatives.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework:</strong>The investors perceive the adoption of the security market as necessary to examine the pre-investment in the security market.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> With the implementation and incorporation of security features, the performance of the security market is improved.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications:</strong>The analysis is based on the Indian security market scenario through data collection from 300 respondents. The data were collected through primary data collection in quantitative and qualitative approaches.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong>The examination is based on the evaluation of the framed hypothesis based on the demographic profile of the investors in the security market.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>The findings concluded that the risk associated with the security investments was subjected to security risk.</p> <p> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Venkateswarlu Chandu, K. Pradeep Reddy, Sambhana Srilakshmi, Shifaly Copyright (c) 2022 Venkateswarlu Chandu, K. Pradeep Reddy, Sambhana Srilakshmi, Shifaly https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/416 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Testing of Semi–Strong Form of Efficiency: an Empirical Study on Stock Market Reaction Around Dividend Announcement https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/483 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of the Indian stock market of the Nifty IT index over the dividend announcement for five years from 2016 to 2020.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong>A reward procured by the shareholders on their equities is, of course, the dividend. A leading area of concern is the dividend announcement. According to the theory of efficient markets, stock prices accurately reflect all available information. This demonstrates that the prices are correct and fair. The market should therefore respond immediately to an event in this instance the dividend announcement. Therefore, depending on publicly available information will not provide investors with the possibility to consistently generate extraordinary returns.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/ methodology/ approach: </strong>The study attempts to validate the event study approach while investigating the semi-strong form of efficiency. Daily share prices of five companies out of ten of the Nifty IT index were observed to test the Efficient Market Hypothesis. 31 days event window has been employed to calculate the abnormal returns of the selected sample around dividend issue announcements also t-test was applied to assess the level of significance.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The study found that the stock market was efficient in its semi strong form and the investors could not make excess returns over the dividend announcement of the Nifty IT index.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; social implications: </strong>This study eliminates the possibility for investors to beat the average market returns. It is significant since it affects stock market investment choices.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/ Values: </strong>The majority of studies are only able to analyse the overall average abnormal return and cumulative average abnormal return of chosen companies; it is difficult to locate studies that focus on the abnormal return for each individual company. The t test for each company-wise abnormal returns, overall average abnormal returns, and cumulative average abnormal returns were acquired and tested at the 5% level of significance in order to determine the significance.</p> <p> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Prema Krishnan, M. N. Periasamy Copyright (c) 2022 Prema Krishnan, M. N. Periasamy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/483 Tue, 09 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Analyzing and measuring the long-term balance relationship between changes in government spending and real growth in Iraq for the period 1990 – 2018 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/470 <p> </p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The study Purpose to achieve to Study and analyze the reality of government spending and economic growth in Iraq through the real GDP index with and without oil.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> The authors used the changes in government spending and real growth a panel cointegration analysis and Granger causality procedure to detect the dynamic relationships between the variables for the period 1990 – 2018.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> Analyzing and measuring the impact of government spending on real economic growth with and without oil in the Iraqi economy.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: The results of the joint integration test showed that there is no long-term and short-term balance relationship between the two variables government spending and real output with oil. While it showed the existence of a long and short-term balance relationship between the two variables government spending and the real output without oil.</p> <p> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Muna Younus Hussein Copyright (c) 2022 Muna Younus Hussein https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/470 Tue, 09 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 LTE Carrier Aggregation Deployment – From Standardization to Deployment https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/354 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The objective of this research was to investigate LTE Carrier Aggregation commercial deployment and how soon it happened after standardization finalization. Because LTE Carrier Aggregation feature was expected to be important feature there is good reason to expect its deployment for real commercial markets.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong>The literature at time when standardization was ongoing predicted and speculated Carrier Aggregation feature as promising deployment selection. However there is room to investigate whether Carrier Aggregation happened shortly after standard specification work finalized. </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Used methodology was to gather network operators’ and equipment manufacturers’ intentions for LTE Carrier Aggregation commercial deployment purposes during and after standardization finalization. Information found from public sources where commercial deployment intentions launched by companies. </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The research showed that after and already before standardization finalized there were immediate intentions for LTE Carrier Aggregation deployment. Commercial trials appeared within one year and real commercial deployments appeared within two years from standardization finalization. That means soon deployments in commercial markets when considering deployment in licensed band.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: </strong>For future works there could be study why not LTE Carrier Aggregation solutions in unlicensed band was not successful and whether there will be changes when going towards 5G standard related deployments.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>This article is an academic contribution for innovation feature commercial deployment in telecommunications industry and investigation whether LTE Carrier Aggregation feature deployment happened as soon as expected.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Timo Hussa Copyright (c) 2022 Timo Hussa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/354 Fri, 12 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Fox’s Head or Lion’s Tail? Work Life Balance of Women Entrepreneurs in Agriculture and farm Ventures and its Antecedent Effect on Quality of Life https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/465 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The objective of this study was to identify the factors that influence work life balance of women entrepreneurs in the field of agriculture and allied products and how the family demands affect their work-life balance. Further, the paper explores the conflict between parental demand and running a business.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework</strong>: Literature review points out that despite, an increase in the number of women entrepreneurs over the years, according to the (Global entrepreneurship monitor report, 2020), fewer women pursue entrepreneurship due to various challenges of managing personal and business responsibilities and striking the right balance. Work-life balance is frequently examined in the context of human resource management (Etienne St-Jean and Duhamel M.,2020)but not much has been explored in an entreprenurial context.Hence this study is to investigate and understand the influence of various factors affecting work life balance from an entrepreneurial standpoint.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Triangulation method was used for the study by utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data. The researchers developed a questionnaire to measure work-life balance experienced by women entrepreneurs with 12 independent variables to measure the dependent variable work-life balance.The sample consisted of 450 women agripreneurs</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The findings reveal that the age of the children is a major determinant of the extent of parental demand a woman goes through in her life and family support systems are critical in reducing overlap and conflict between the life domains. A positive spillover between the domains significantly enhances quality of life of women entrepreneurs.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: </strong>We suggest a future research into other Personality traits and macro environmental factors which can have a bearing on work life balance of women entrepreneurs which would enable an inclusive entrepreneurial ecosystem.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>The researchers have concluded that positive spillover between the domains significantly enhances quality of life of women entrepreneurs.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> K. Lakshmypriya, Rashmi Rai, Shrinivas Kulkarni, Gowri Shankar, Leena James Copyright (c) 2022 K. Lakshmypriya, Rashmi Rai, Shrinivas Kulkarni, Gowri Shankar, Leena James https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/465 Wed, 17 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Employee Engagement in Finance - Banking Organizations in Vietnam: a Meta-Case Approach https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/464 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The research objective of this article is to approach the diverse situations of commercial banks in Vietnam in examining employee engagement in order to create effective employee classes in performing tasks. This, in turn, ensures the stability in growth and creates a proud and traditional organizational culture.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework:</strong> The study has reviewed and selected the core contents of previously published studies globally to come up with its own research framework with Employee Engagement latent variable as the center, and other 7 main observed variables. At the same time, the study uses two groups of latent variables, JS and EA, respectively, to refer to job satisfaction and external attractive factors for employees of commercial banks in Vietnam.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> Research designed in an inductive manner. However, conducting the research through a mixed method is still necessary for better conclusions. The author approached some typical commercial banks at once (also called, the meta-case approach, which includes the traditional approaches to Multiple Regression analysis and new assumptions in the approach, along with SEM-CB analysis).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Research has shown a relationship between the latent variables, Employee Engagement, Job Satisfaction and External Appeals. The correlation between variables in assumed cases show the importance of different groups of factors affecting the ultimate goal of the human resource management process in commercial banks. It is the loyalty to the organization of the employees. In particular, the outstanding factors that can be further analyzed are Promotion opportunities, Moral standards ​​and Organizational brand.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications:</strong> The study is a good reference for the system of commercial banks, especially with the unique characteristics of commercial banks in Vietnam. In addition, having loyal employees creates enduring businesses.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> The research has been conducted by the author, ensuring standards of research and ethical factors in publication. It contributes additional material to specialized research in Management, Human Resources and Business in general.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Phan Minh Duc Copyright (c) 2022 Phan Minh Duc https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/464 Fri, 19 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Assessing the impact of EVFTA on Vietnam's textile and garment exports to the UK https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/426 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The study assesses the impact of the EVFTA on textile exports from Vietnam to the UK and provides some policy implications for Vietnam.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value</strong>: The study used the data of Vietnam's textile and garment exports to the UK in the period 2010 - 2019 and the data of countries' textile exports to the UK in 2019 to propose 3 export scenarios for Vietnam.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong>: The study uses the SMART model combined with qualitative research methods to analyze and evaluate the positive and negative impacts of UKVFTA on Vietnam's textile and garment exports.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: Research has shown the positive effects and limitations of UVK on textile exports from Vietnam to the UK. Since then, several short-term and long-term measures have been proposed to develop Vietnam's textile and garment industry.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Ha Van Hoi, Nguyen Tien Minh Copyright (c) 2022 Ha Van Hoi, Nguyen Tien Minh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/426 Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 The effectiveness of directing optional activities as capital for small and medium enterprises based on digitalization in the crisis https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/468 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: This study aims to increase and direct the capital owned by SMEs so that they are able to survive in crisis conditions.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong> During the covid-19 crisis, companies sought innovative ways to survive. They must utilize inter-business networks, select productive activities, and adjust their marketing strategies. Agents of artificial intelligence have been utilized as a "creative class" (public knowledge). All SMEs are unprepared for the first time in economic history to adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Therefore, SME managers must learn from COVID-19.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Qualitative descriptive approach was used aims to direct choice activities with individual performance in groups, data collection techniques with surveys. The research is focused on 300 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in five industrial areas in Central Java (Semarang, Pekalongan, Tegal, and Brebes) that are directly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic crisis.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The findings prove that the social aspects of the company, innovation and training are significant and positive sustainability factors. So far, there have been no fundamental changes made by SME owners to manage their business. still with the old concept with dogma that has been inherited from its predecessors by looking at what has been done in the past.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: </strong>Further research needs to be studied more deeply about the dimensions of Directing Creativity choice in the micro and large sectors, the impact of leadership needs to be studied if this variable is included in further research.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong> The results of the study indicate that the first creative SMEs are able to survive the crisis, the second SMEs have sustainable programs and the third are innovative SMEs.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Sutrisno, Olivia Fachrunnisa, Widodo Copyright (c) 2022 Sutrisno, Olivia Fachrunnisa, Widodo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/468 Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 The Theory of Planned Behaviour and Examining Consumer Purchase Behaviours of Energy-Efficient Lighting Products https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/422 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>:This study aims to determine what factors influence consumers; desire to buy led lamps in kerala. an sem model was used to examine the factors influencing the desire to buy led lights. there are 15 reasons to switch to led lights. there were 200 responses from shoppers, and the study looked at customers &amp;; intentions toward leds. the structural equation model assessed four assumptions. in conclusion, customers &amp;; attitudes and perceived control over their behavior are unrelated to their purchase intent, although subjective norms and purchase behavior are related. the data suggest that rather than their mood and perceived behavior determining their purchase behavior, and their purchasing intent dictating their purchase behaviour.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework:</strong> The adoption of led lighting has affected household energy consumption and the necessary psychological determinants of electricity use. however, this study uses the theory of planned behavior to explain customer intentions and behavior. in comparison, research has to understand better the features and dynamics of energy use and pro-environmental behavior and the impact of energy efficiency initiatives. there has been little study on the effect of such programs on energy behavior. to examine which characteristics, influence consumers &amp;; behavior while shopping for energy-efficient products and how their attitudes and purchasing intentions influence behavior. thus far, our discussion has resulted in the following research statement: to better understand consumer behavior in Kerala, including the elements that influence customers ; decisions to purchase led goods in Kerala.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: Samples were drawn from the urban area of Kerala. the state of kerala consist of 14 districts, simple random sampling method was used to select 5 districts (36 per cent of the total population). from the selected districts, again select one urban area from each district i.e., 40 samples from each urban area. total 200 sample respondents were selected for the study by using purposive sampling method.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>:The present study was focused on planned behaviour of consumer towards led products. there are four hypotheses were tested with structural equation model. the result concludes that attitude of consumers and their perceived behaviour control is not linked with the purchase intention, while the subjective norms is linked with purchase intention and the purchase intention is linked with the purchase behaviour. hence, based on the result, it could be concluding that majority of the consumers were encouraged by the others to purchase led products and not on their attitude and perceived behaviour control and their purchasing intention id deciding their purchase behaviour.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, practical &amp; social implications:</strong>Samples were drawn from the urban area of kerala. the state of kerala consist of 14 districts, simple random sampling method was used to select 5 districts (36 per cent of the total population). from the selected districts, again select one urban area from each district i.e., 40 samples from each urban area. total 200 sample respondents were selected for the study by using purposive sampling method. the criterion was the consumers those who have experience with the led products. total 540 questionnaires were distributed among the selected area and 478 questionaries were return after the elimination of partially filled questionnaires. then 200 questionnaires were randomly selected<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong>This study attempts to fill in the knowledge gap using an experimental technique to examine how energy efficiency efforts affect participant behavior. as a surrogate for attitudes and beliefs, the tpb variables explain energy consumption intentions and behavior. according to this research, kerala consumers have been slower than their counterparts worldwide to embrace and apply highly developed and integrated contemporary energy efficiency measures. furthermore, this investigation will help businesses go forward and gain the public trust in energy-efficient products. however, it is difficult; this study tries to determine the most critical and essential factors influencing client attitudes regarding led Purchases.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Renji Mohan, D. Kinslin Copyright (c) 2022 Renji Mohan, D. Kinslin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/422 Fri, 26 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 A Study on Occupational Stress among Arts and Science College Faculties in Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/423 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>:The goal of this research is to explore the occupational stress level of faculties working in Arts and Science College in Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India. Teachers of any country are respectable and they are valuables to their country. Tomorrow’s nation is in the hands of the teachers who sculpt the students. Among all the profession in the world, there is a significant place for teaching profession. Recent days, teacher’s job is also like a managerial job as they play a multi-dimensional work commitment. In that case, the stress of the teacher’s can’t be avoided, but it can be nullified when they know how to control it.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework:</strong>The theoretical framework highlights the directions in carrying out the research. It shows the factors of occupational stress are independent variables and the facilities of Arts and Science colleges are dependent variables. The relationships between the variables are studied in this research.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>:The primary sources of the data are collected through personal interview and structured questionnaire and the statistical analysis is carried out through Percentage analysis, T-test and correlation.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>:From the study it is found that occupational stress of female faculties is high when compared with male teachers. The study shows the significant difference was observed among male and female faculties on occupational stress. The factors that cause occupational stress is also discussed in the study. A significant and positive correction is observed among the varieties of occupational stress.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, practical &amp; social implications:</strong> The college management should look for some aid from psychologists to direct faculties freeing from their frustration and anger. College management can provide training and workshops which helps to enhance the skills of faculties and develop a rapport among co-workers. </p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong>The variables of the studies are analysed and it shows the meaningful effect on the occupational stress of faculties. Then the research is concluded with the certainty that occupational stress of the facilities is nullified and the performance will be increased.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Auslien Nanci. J. R, V. P. Velmurugan Copyright (c) 2022 Auslien Nanci. J. R, V. P. Velmurugan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/423 Mon, 29 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 A Role of Knowledge Level of Employees in Customer Relationship Management With Special Reference to Lic https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/436 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Role ofknowledge level of employees in customer relationship management with special reference to LIC. In order to investigate a range of factors of CRM in LIC of India. In this specially concentrate to understand the knowledge level of the employees as perceived by the customer.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework:</strong> The theoretical frame work of the study, CRM is assessed the Knowledge level of employees isthe independent variables and the customer satisfaction is the dependent variable in the study. CRM is shown influencing the customer satisfaction. The significant influences of the factors on CRM vary according to different demographic profiles and views on policy holdings.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>:Descriptive research design was use in this studyThe prime data were collected from the sample of the respondents was identified from the total population of lic policy holders. The statistical analysis was carried out with the application of SPSS package. Both Descriptive and Inferential Analysis were carried out. The tools for the Inferential Analysis included Independent Sample t-test, One Way ANOVA, Chi Square Test, Friedman Test, Correlation and Regression.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: The findings of the study based on output of the study. Henceforth reasoned that there is a huge distinction between mean positions towards Factors of Customer Relationship Management. In light of mean position, Customer Engagement is the main variable of CRM, trailed by Deployment of Modern Technology Knowledge level of the Employees etc. There is no importance contrast between capability of representatives concerning the Factors of Knowledge level of the Employees, There is significance contrast among male and female of laborers with respect to the Factors of Knowledge level of the Employees. The connection coefficient between Perception on Explanation of various items and Ready for Clarification is positive connections between Perception on Explanation of various item and Perception on Ready for Clarification .The connection coefficient between Explanation of various item and Recommending Right Schemes is positive connections between Explanation of various item and Recommending Right Schemes. The connection coefficient between Perception on Explanation of various items and Knowledge about Procedure is positive connections between Perception on Explanation of various items and Easy Acquisition of Policy and also different variables are decidedly corresponded with one another.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, practical &amp; social implications:</strong>This article express a different perspective on CRM in LIC.The results of this study indicate knowledge level of employees has a strong impact on customer satisfaction. Therefore top management should implement latest technology based increase the knowledge level of employees. To increase the knowledge level of employees to help the increasing satisfaction level of policy holders. It is intended to help guide and reassure current and potential Ph. D students.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong>To date, no systematic review has been conducted on the knowledge level of employees in LIC .This paper makes an important contribution to knowledge level of employees in CRM.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> D. Sahaya Beula, V. P. Velmurugan, K. A. Janardhanan Copyright (c) 2022 D. Sahaya Beula, V. P. Velmurugan, K. A. Janardhanan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/436 Mon, 29 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Energy Savings and Human Performance, Transition Towards Efficient Lighting in Commercial Buildings https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/437 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Evaluate human performance under LED lighting system in commercial building regarding:-Visual Performance (VP), Motor Performance (MP), Task Performance (TP), Cognitive Performance, Human Performance, and Work Life. To assess the direct effect between Cognitive Performance and Human Performance To identify the role of Circadian System (M1), and Discomfort (M2) between Cognitive Performance and Human performance.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework:</strong> Driven lighting is presently the most reliable. As a result, determining all crops&amp;#39; light needs is complicated. Purposive sampling use to select the respondents. Floor office units and single office rooms required LED illumination. Because the entire population list was unavailable, 200 samples chose for the investigation. The study looked at an employee&amp;#39;s cognitive and human performance. No relation between visual and cognitive performance. Pain impairs cognitive and motor functions. No discomfort affects work-life balance. However, the pain reduces human performance. Distress, eye pain, and weariness impede human performance. However, visual discomfort, visual message, glare, and flicker do. The study recommends assessing visual performance based on employee illumination discomfort.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>:Driven lighting systems are now the most widely used and dependable in the world. Compact fluorescent light bulbs are used in India&amp;#39;s current lighting systems for the most part. Even though there are a few small and medium-sized LED producers, there is no industry standard for LED production. As a result, estimating the amount of light all types of produce require is difficult. The goal of this research was to find out how LED illumination affects human performance. An organized questionnaire was utilized to gather information from employees of various government and commercial sector organizations. The research focused on the Trivandrum area because Trivandrum is Kerala&amp;#39;s capital and home to most of the state&amp;#39;s administrative offices. Respondents were drawn from government and private sector offices using a stratified random sampling approach. Offices were divided into floor office units and single office rooms, with LED lighting systems required in all of them. Two hundred samples were chosen for the study after the reliability and genuineness of obtained data were checked because the entire population list was unavailable.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: Research, Practical &amp; Social Implications:</strong> As a result of this research, we set out to determine how well LED and conventional (linear fluorescent, compact fluorescent, and incandescent) lighting systems perform luminously, how well people perform, and how much they cost in the most common luminaire applications currently found in the environment. The popularity of LED lighting systems has overtaken that of all other kinds of fabricated luminaires. In contrast, linear and compact fluorescent luminaires are used in most Indian lighting systems now in use. No LED standards exist, despite just a handful of medium and small firms currently producing LED lights. As a result, establishing the precise illumination requirements for each product is challenging to do. Compare the environmental, technological, and economic factors to the alternatives now accessible to discover a better solution.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> Human performance is very much important in every sector and it’s depended on various multi-dimensional factors. Here the study has been analysed the direct and indirect effect between Cognitive Performance and Human performance of an employee. Simultaneously, study is saying that cognitive performance is not depending on the visual, and task performance. On the other hand, it could be seen that, Cognitive performance is affected by discomfort and the motor performance influence towards the Cognitive performance is positive but not significant. In the case of work life, it has no influence towards the human performance and also discomfort is influencing the human performance. While analyzing the mediation effect, it was found that, direct effect of Cognitive Performance will increase the Human Performance, but the existence of discomfort will reduce the human performance. Which means that negative mood change, visual discomfort, discomfort to visual message, Glare, Flicker, Eye pain, and fatigue are reducing the human performance. Based on the findings from the study, it could be seen that visual, motor and task performance is not influencing the cognitive performance, at the same time visual discomfort, discomfort to visual message, Glare, Flicker are decreasing their performance. hence, the study is suggesting that visual performance should be measure on the basis of various discomforts faced by the employee from their work place lightening.</p> <p> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> D. Kinslin, Renji Mohan Copyright (c) 2022 D. Kinslin, Renji Mohan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/437 Mon, 29 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Expert System to Guide Users of the Tourist Corridor of the Provinces of Jaen, San Ignacio and Utcubamba in Cajamarca, Peru https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/591 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Develop a rule-based expert system to guide the users of the tourist corridor of the provinces of Jaén, San Ignacio and Utcubamba (Peru).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong> Hussein and Aqel (2015), developed a rule-based expert system in Jordan to choose the best tour package based on time, budget, and preferences. In Peru, Ramos and Valdivia (2017), proposed an expert system to promote tourism in the Lambayeque region.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong> To develop the system, the methodology of Nicolás Kemper was used. Tourism experts from the provinces participated in the development of the knowledge base. The evaluation was carried out with an expert different from those who prepared the aforementioned base.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong> In the evaluation, the expert system and the human expert agreed on the recommendation of tourist attractions by 80%. Concluding that this system helps tourists in making decisions about which places to visit in the tourist corridor.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Contributions: </strong> The system helps improve the dissemination of local tourist information. To develop the knowledge base, tourism resources were systematized. New variables can be incorporated into the knowledge base in order to obtain more personalized tourist recommendations.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong> This research is innovative because there is no expert system to guide tourists who want to travel to these places; it has social relevance as it helps to boost the local economy.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Nilthon Arce Fernandez, Flabio Gutierrez, Eder Escobar Gómez; Adán Díaz Ruiz; José Piedra Tineo, Edwar Lujan Segura Copyright (c) 2022 Nilthon Arce Fernandez, Flabio Gutierrez, Eder Escobar Gómez; Adán Díaz Ruiz; José Piedra Tineo, Edwar Lujan Segura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/591 Mon, 29 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 The Relationship Between the Reputation of Audit Offices and the Accuracy of the Opinion on Continuity and the Extent to Which it is Affected by the Financial Failure Field Research in the Iraqi Stock Exchange https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/425 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purposes:</strong> The purpose of the research is to test the relationship between the reputation of the auditor's office and the accuracy of his opinion on continuity and the impact of that relationship on the financial failure of the client company.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework:</strong> Studying the impact of the financial failure of the client company as an intermediate variable. Where some control variables are included, these were addressed through previous studies through a sample of companies listed on the Iraqi stock market (2017-2020) based on the binary logistic regression model to test the research hypotheses.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Methodology/ Design Approach:</strong> Relying on the binary logistic regression model to test and conducting additional analysis to test the research hypotheses.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the research indicated that there is a positive and significant impact of the reputation of the audit firms on the accuracy of their opinion on the continuity hypothesis, as well as the positive impact of the accuracy of the opinion of the Supreme Audit Bureau in the supervision of the auditors of the Bureau, and there is a positive and important impact of the variable of financial default as an intermediary variable between reputation the auditor's office and the accuracy of his opinion on continuity. Finally, the results of the analysis support the positive correlation of the effect of financial failure as a control variable on the accuracy of his opinion on going concern.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research and practical and social effects:</strong> The social effects of research appear by studying the reputation of the auditor and its impact on the continuity or failure of companies listed in the Iraqi Stock Exchange.</p> <p>The value of originality: The research represents a qualitative addition to the research that examined the auditor’s reputation variables and their impact on the continuity of companies.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Ala Alddin Abdulwahab Al Sabti, Majid Ahmed AL Anssari Copyright (c) 2022 Ala Alddin Abdulwahab Al Sabti, Majid Ahmed AL Anssari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/425 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0300 The Mediating Effect of Dynamic Capabilities on the Relationship Between Strategic Foresight and Strategic Renewal: Evidence from Islamic Banks in Jordan https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/369 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The present study aimed to examine the mediating effect that dynamic capabilities may have on the relationship between strategic foresight and strategic renewal.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/ approach: </strong>The present study relied on quantitative and qualitative methods. More specifically, the authors used a cross-sectional design and survey strategy. Three hundred and three participants were selected randomly from four Islamic banks operating in Jordan completed the study questionnaire. A structural equation modeling technique was employed to test the study hypotheses by using SmartPLS 3 software package.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The results demonstrated that strategic foresight and dynamic capabilities have a significant and positive effect on strategic renewal. Also, the results illustrated that the dynamic capabilities have a partial mediating effect on the relationship between strategic foresight and strategic renewal.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research limitations: </strong>The results of the present study relate to Islamic banks in Jordan; hence the ability to generalize the findings to other sectors is limited. Another limitation is respondent bias because the study design relies heavily on the participants’ perceptions.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Practical implementation: </strong>Used properly, strategic foresight allows managers to see how events in the external environment influence their organizations’ performance. Thus, managers can use strategic foresight for making corrections in plans, policies, strategies, and objectives to get performance back on track using their organizations’ dynamic capabilities.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality:</strong> Despite the amount of research and studies that have been devoted to understanding strategic foresight, dynamic capabilities, and strategic renewal over the last decades, the relationship between these three constructs has never been studied collectively. Therefore, the present study fills this gap in the literature.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Ahmad Nasser Abuzaid, Yazan Emnawer Al Haraisa, Manal Mohammad Alateeq Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmad Nasser Abuzaid, Yazan Emnawer Al Haraisa, Manal Mohammad Alateeq https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/369 Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Financing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Role of Private Banks: an Exploratory Study in Dhi-Qar Province https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/469 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The research aims to shed light on the financing of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Dhi-Qar province and the role of private banks in that.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework:</strong> The theoretical framework of study focuses on the defining of (SMEs), the method of financing the (SMEs) which included the operating loans and investment loans, the obstacles to financing, and the factors of success and failure in SMEs also included in theoretical framework.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> The study tool for the practical side was a questionnaire, and the study relied on the descriptive analytical approach, where the questionnaire was distributed (335) questionnaire on the owners of (SMEs) represented (Chamber of Commerce, The Business Federation, and the Chamber of Industry) and the number of questionnaires valid for analysis was (300) and the statistical program was used (SPSS.v.23), Research, Practical &amp; Social implications:</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The study reached the most important conclusions, including the inability of owners of (SMEs) to provide the required guarantees from private banks, and the weak ability to Submit the required financial statements for which the loan is granted, and the amount of loans granted by the banks is not compatible with the capital and operational needs of the owners of (SMEs).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> Highlight in the necessity of finding a mechanism to financially support (SMEs) and urge banks and financial institutions to encourage them to support these enterprises.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Abdulridha Hassan Saud, Mohammed Fadhil Neamah, Azhar A. Sabbar Copyright (c) 2022 Abdulridha Hassan Saud, Mohammed Fadhil Neamah, Azhar A. Sabbar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/469 Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Recruitment Marketing - a Bibliometric analysis https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/431 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The purpose of the study is to conduct a Bibliometric analysis of Recruitment Marketing.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong>Recruitment Marketing is a technique that has evolved recently to nurture candidates before they apply for a job. Understanding and applying recruitment marketing techniques is essential to retain a talent pool. Since Recruitment Marketing is a new strategy, there is still much to research and discover.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>The current scenario of publications from 2000-2020 on Recruitment Marketing listed in the Clarivate Web of Science database was explored in this bibliometric study. To build a bibliometric map, descriptive and inferential statistical methods were utilized. Bibliometric analysis was performed using R-based software Biblioshiny.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The findings revealed that the topic is not well established in the literature but has scope for growth in the coming future. The results reported that only very few studies were undertaken in the area of recruitment marketing globally. USA and Australia are the countries which contributed articles in this area when compared to other countries. The most commonly used words are 'loyalty,' 'attraction,' and 'conceptual-model'. New developments in recruitment marketing have not been sufficiently studied and understood logically and concisely. This study utilized a conceptual framework to organize and analyze the field's various research streams and themes. These themes and subthemes have suggested research recommendations and crucial research areas.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications: </strong>Authors recommend in-depth study for the future and identify the areas that need more exploration. The current study can help researchers and recruiters to analyze the upcoming recruiting trends and strategies.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>The study is found to be primary and original research that contributes to the bibliometric representation of recruitment marketing.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Sneha Kandoth, Dr. Suraj Kushe Shekhar Copyright (c) 2022 Sneha Kandoth, Dr. Suraj Kushe Shekhar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/431 Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 A Study on Influence of Personal Profile Variables on Emotional Intelligence Ofarts and Science College Students https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/435 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>To assess the level of emotional intelligence among Arts and Science College students as well as the influence of personal profile traits on emotional intelligence in those students.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong>Variables like Education, Area of residence, Gender, Age, Family monthly income, Father Educational Qualification influence the Emotional Intelligence of the Students</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/Approach:</strong> Purposive sampling, T- test, F- Test</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>This research has added to the body of knowledge about emotion-related personality differences among arts and science college students studying in various streams, and how they differ in various ways</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social Implications: </strong>Emotional intelligence should be taught through various workshops, Community-wide awareness programmes should be organized</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong>Establishing Emotional Intelligence-based results across several streams can aid in achieving a better balance between a student's personality and their academic stream of choice. Academic success and professional advancement are made easier with this balance. Emotional intelligence testing may also aid in the development of self-reflection and increased understanding of one's own personality.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> A. Sathya, V. P. Velmurugan Copyright (c) 2022 A. Sathya, V. P. Velmurugan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/435 Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 The possibility of Applying International Accounting Standards in the Public Sector (IPSAS) in the Iraqi Government Accounting System: Exploratory Research for the Opinions of Accountants at the University of Al-Muthanna https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/461 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This paper aims to use such standards to contribute to strengthening the accounting profession at the global level and provides financial disclosure that is easy to understand, treat and deal with, and hold government officials accountable for its basis.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework:</strong> Rapid developments in the field of information technology and the trend toward global trade relations imposed the use of new tools to address the government accounting system applied in Iraq to improve the quality of financial information. In addition, reducing the manipulation of public money and rationalize the state's economic policies.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> To achieve the research objectives, a questionnaire was designed and Distributed to an intentional sample of accountants, whose number reached (60) accountants.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The findings show the importance of IPSAS standards in presenting financial reports to help accountants obtain them quickly and thus achieve the efficiency and effectiveness of accounting work, correcting and strengthening decisions and ensuring their effectiveness systems.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research Practical&amp; Social implication:</strong> The contribution of our paper relies on investigating the General Accounting System (IPSAS) in the government accounting system in the field through doing a survey of the opinions of specialists at the University of Al-Muthanna as a field for conducting research, as well as an indication of the adequacy of laws, legislation and principles that regulate government accounting to ensure good practice of ( IPSAS ) standards.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Implications/Originality/Value:</strong> the possibility of applying international accounting standards in the public sector to its accounting systems.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Bushra Hassan Mohamed El-Toby , Akeel Dakheel Kareem, Waad Hadi Abd Copyright (c) 2022 Bushra Hassan Mohamed El-Toby , Akeel Dakheel Kareem, Waad Hadi Abd https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/461 Tue, 06 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 The Relationship Between Audit Services and Non-Audit Actuarial Services in the Auditor’s Report https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/455 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>In view of the trend toward using international financial reporting standards when generating financial statements, we looked at the interaction between audit services and non-audit services for auditors in the context of actuarial services for insurance firms. CPAs are authorized to work in banks and insurance businesses, but those with a practicing license obtained after earning a higher academic degree are not.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>A small number of auditing firms control the decisions issued by the Iraqi Accountants Association, monopolizing audit services in banks and insurance businesses. In the case of actuarial services used in reserve estimation, they are credited to an external party's account without any verification of the Reliability of the reserve estimation procedure.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>In addition to audit services, a scale has been developed to examine the auditors' non-audit actuarial services. The financial reporting rules for insurance contracts 17 and the examinations for acquiring an actuarial certificate in the United States of America are used to create this scale.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The findings show that there is no substantial relationship between the two services supplied, and we recommend that the actuarial services be audited by specialist international companies that support the auditors' judgment on the computation of expected reserves in the financial accounts. Conducting specialist courses in the actuarial profession, and obtaining this credential is a requirement for auditing insurance companies.</p> Zeina Khdier Abass, Hakeem Hammood Flayyih, Sarah Isam Hasan Copyright (c) 2022 Zeina Khdier Abass, Hakeem Hammood Flayyih, Sarah Isam Hasan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/455 Tue, 06 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Studying the Effect of Employees’ Environment Awareness as an Intermediate Variable for the Relationship between Institutional Pressures and Intentions of Human Resources for Adoption of Green Information Techniques: An Exploratory Study of Micro-Companie https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/447 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of the present research paper is to study the impact of institutional pressures derived from institutional theory on the intentions of human resources in micro companies to adopt green information technology. Besides, it aims at explaining the reasons why human resources in companies and research sample, are heterogeneous in their adoption of green information technology, even though they are under institutional pressures.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework:</strong> The carbon footprint for micro-companies enlarges continuously for due to its an increasing use of information techniques in its all activities. Institutional pressures have increased on micro-companies pushing it toward letting human resources adopt green information techniques for mitigating negative impacts hit environment.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> The quantitative design was adopted to collect data from employees working in micro-companies’ in southern Iraq for a sample of 181 employees through the questionnaire. The study sample was requested to give an answer to its items in accordance with 7 point Likert scale. As per data statistical analysis, through the use of Partial Least Squares.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> that institutional pressures (forced, imitated &amp; standard) collectively impact positively on intents of the study’s sample for adoption of a green information technique. Also, it was found that institutional pressures (forced, imitated &amp; standard) impact positively employees’ environmental awareness. Then diagnosing the role of employees’ environmental awareness as a variable intermediating the relation between institutional pressures and intents for letting human resources adopt a green information technique.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications:</strong> Future studies can understandable that green information technology is an open arena for all researchers interested in the environment. Researchers can enter this field by raising study questions and employing and applying its variables to micro companies, or public sector organizations. They can expand the organizational theory by adding other intermediate or interactive variables and their effects on human resources’ intentions to adopt green information technology.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> Human resources in micro companies play a significant role in shaping the company’s legitimacy in its institutional field. Because micro companies appreciate the commencement time to adopt green information technology, and the place of practice. This requires enriching their knowledge of the challenges facing the environment by developing mandatory and voluntary programs to increase human environmental awareness and to get them engaged and directing their behavior towards this objective.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Wameedh A. Khdair, Abd Aladheem D. Jabbar Copyright (c) 2022 Wameedh A. Khdair, Abd Aladheem D. Jabbar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/447 Mon, 19 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 The transfer of powers and its role in unifying the products of accounting systems and their impact on the quality of accounting information Applied research "in the province of Al- Muthanna." https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/446 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The research aims at showing the accounting systems applied in the Iraqi environment and knowing the legal framework for transferring powers which is the most prominent of which is the most important provisions of Law No. (19) of 2013.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework: </strong>The process of transferring powers from ministries to governorates may be accompanied by many legal, political, administrative and financial issues. In the process of researching administrative and financial matters, the Law No. (19) for the year 2013 which is the last amendment to the process of transferring authority, specified a body called (the supreme coordination committee between the governorates) headed by a president, a council of ministers and the membership of ministers (Municipalities and Public Works, Construction and Housing, Labor and Social Affairs, Education, Health, Planning, Agriculture, Finance, Sports and Youth) and the Minister of State for Provincial Affairs.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>This paper is divided into four sections. The first section is the research methodology and previous studies, while the second section contains the theoretical framework the concepts of accounting systems in the light of the Iraqi environment. The third section presents the practical aspect of the research. Finally, the most important conclusions and recommendations are shown in the fourth section.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The results show the availability of systems accounting after transfer powers information accounting with high efficiency. Additionally, the effectiveness and the existence of a significant effect relationship between transfer powers and unite products systems accounting.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Research Practical&amp; Social implication: </strong>Governors and Heads of provincial councils consider transferring powers from the center to local administrations, and in their appropriations allocated in the budget as well as approving the accounts applied in those departments affiliated to the ministries differ in the accounting systems. Some of them use the unified accounting system, and the other uses the central government accounting system. On the other hand, the local administrations use the decentralized government accounting system to achieve the objectives of the research filed.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Implications/Originality/Value:</strong> Identification the accounting treatments after the process of transferring powers and their impact on the applied accounting systems. The research aims at teasting the main hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between the transfer of powers and quality the information accounting through the mediating role of unification products systems accounting.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Akeel Dakheel Kareem, Abdul Jabbar Alwan Jabr, Waad Hadi Copyright (c) 2022 Akeel Dakheel Kareem, Abdul Jabbar Alwan Jabr, Waad Hadi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/446 Mon, 19 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Optimization of the Ahp Method in Determining the Location of Touristdestinations on the Island of Java, Indonesia https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/440 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This study aims to map the pattern of tourist preferences in visiting tourist destinations on the island of Java</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework: </strong>This research tries to make a tourist decision model in choosing a tourist destination on the island of Java with a mathematical method, namely Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The sample data used is data sourced from the "Indonesian backpacker" group. Respondents were selected based on the criteria that they had traveled to three tourist destinations, namely; Jakarta, Yokjakarta, and Bandung. Data collection was carried out to obtain information and data related to this research. In this study, the researcher optimizes the calculation of the AHP method to determine the ranking of the existing alternatives so that it is hoped that the calculation results are more accurate than using the AHP method</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>Based on communal considerations (all criteria) with the AHP method in sequence; Jakarta (50,5%), Bandung (30,9%), and Yogyakarta (18,6%). The results showed that Jakarta became the main priority, then Bandung and respectively. Ease of access and completeness are the reasons for choosing a tourist destination on the island of Java.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research implications:</strong> The quality of site transactions is closely related to the quality of human resources (HR) where in service products, humans become the mind product. HR in Tourism sector are all human aspects that support tourism activities, both tangible and intangible, which aims to meet the needs and create tourist satisfaction and have a positive impact on the economy, welfare, and environmental and cultural sustainability in a tourist area. Improving the quality of human resources is very important in improving the quality of tourist destinations.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>Research on the model for selecting tourist destinations on the island of Java as the island with the most populous population in Indonesia has never been done before by other researchers</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Widi Winarso, Supardi S, Azizah A, Kuswantinah K, Su’aidy S, Dhian Tyas Untari Copyright (c) 2022 Widi Winarso, Supardi S, Azizah A, Kuswantinah K, Su’aidy S, Dhian Tyas Untari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/440 Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Force field analysis of supporting and inhibiting factors producers’ income in the RI-PNG border area https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/462 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The purpose of this study was to determine the factors supporting and inhibiting the income of traders in the RI-PNG border area.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework</strong>: In the trade process, Producers have a very important role in the process of buying and selling transactions. Producers are faced with driving factors which can support and influence the business so that it can progress and develop so as to increase the income received.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> This study uses secondary data in the form of interviews using questionnaires. The analytical tool used is Force Field Analysis (FFA) to see the factors supporting and inhibiting the income of producers (traders) in the RI-PNG border area.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The results of the study based on the FFA analysis conducted stated that the highest key success factor in the supporting factor was the cooperative relationship between producers (traders) and the government, while the inhibiting factor was the low quality of human resources.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications:</strong> The results of this study can be used by policy makers, namely the government in connection with the known supporting and inhibiting factors in order to make policies that can increase the income and welfare of producers as well as provide benefits to the state.The results of this study can also be useful for the community at large because it opens their understanding of trade conditions in the RI-PNG border area, as well as factors that support and hinder, so that it can become new knowledge in the community.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> The RI-PNG border area can become an area of economic growth because of the economic activities that occur. Various potential products can be traded through trade that occurs at the border. Therefore, besides focusing on infrastructure development around the border area, the government also needs to improve the character of the community so that they are able to compete in the trade to increase the community's income.The difference from previous research and this research is that most of the previous research only focused on the topic of producer income. Meanwhile, this study focuses on the factors supporting and inhibiting the opinion of producers in the RI-PNG</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Elsyan Rienette Marlissa Copyright (c) 2022 Elsyan Rienette Marlissa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/462 Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Determinants of Community Decisions To Lend Money To Loaners https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/510 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>To meet the needs of the public, the government has provided an official financial institution, which is subject to a certain series of administrations with all the calculations. The problem is that not all community members understand access to finance at these financial institutions. There are Islamic banking, BMT, and Sharia KSPPS, but in borrowing money they choose moneylenders. This problem is influenced by the ease of borrowing money from moneylenders, which are more flexible and the method of payment can be adjusted according to a special agreement between the customer and the moneylender. Disbursement of funds that can be done at any time according to the time needed, without being bound by conditions that are considered complicated by the customer. As a form of compensation, the interest charged by moneylenders is high and burdensome for the borrower. The risk of high-interest rates is often not taken into account by the borrower.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>The method for developing public financial literacy is what the moneylender's practice as the object of observation. To be realized as an effort for educational methods is to conduct an analysis of moneylenders in the community and explore how people depend on moneylenders, evaluate financial behavior in the community, deconstruct financial behavior and re-conceptualize public financial behavior.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>Socialization and acceleration of the marketing of financial products from the BMT, or official government financial institutions need to be carried out to prevent the level of community dependence on moneylenders, including by expanding financial literacy in the community, establishing management education methods, and implementing finance that is more inclusive in the community.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social Implications: </strong>The necessities of life for each individual in the community will certainly not be the same, to be able to fulfill the purpose of these needs it is financed by the availability of funds or financial means. There are members of the community who are relatively able to meet their financing needs, but not a few of the community have not met their needs.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong>This study seeks to help the government and society in Indonesia to have a good education in terms of financial literacy, people need information and knowledge that currently in Indonesia there are many formal and legal financial institutions to help financial problems faced by people in Indonesia. Indonesian people are no longer just dependent on moneylenders or illegal financial institutions, which will instead trap them into new financial problems.</p> Fatmawati Sungkawaningrum, Sri Hartono, Mohammad H. Holle, Willson Gustiawan, Eka Siskawati, Niswatun Hasanah, Andiyan Andiyan Copyright (c) 2022 Fatmawati Sungkawaningrum, Sri Hartono, Mohammad H. Holle, Willson Gustiawan, Eka Siskawati, Niswatun Hasanah, Andiyan Andiyan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/510 Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 A Review of Literature on the Evaluation of Customer Satisfaction Patterns in Mobile Banking Services https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/534 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Providing high-quality e-banking services and trust is considered a basic strategy for attracting and retaining customers with mobile banking that is less investigated particularly in Iraq. A review of the literature was conducted to achieve these goals.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Theoretical framework:</strong> The scarcity of literature in terms of mobile banking in Iraqi setting was the theoretical basis of the current study. Previous related research was collected and reviewed thematically to understand the trends of the latest literature in mobile banking and customer satisfaction. </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> A narrative approach was utilized in the context of this study. Several studies published between 2016 and 2022 were reviewed. Through this semi systematic literature review different key words were keyed in numerous e-journal database.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> the review revealed that most of the studies in this article utilized qualitative approach as an appropriate method to elicit data. The participants were from ordinary people one study investigated the variables of mobile banking and customer satisfaction among bank staff. Service quality was the highest variable compare with security and ease of use. The review indicated also there a limitation in the previous studies in the Iraqi mobile banking setting. </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social implications:</strong> Mobile banking as an emerging research area specially in Iraqi environment needs more investigation since such kind of research could increase people awareness about the advantage of such technology in the banking industry.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> Even though mobile banking is not a novel concept in Iraq, there is no literature that discusses the use of service quality modal to evaluate a user's level of satisfaction in the mobile banking research area. As a result, the purpose of this paper is to make up for this void.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Nibras Khadim, Muhummad Khairul Islam Copyright (c) 2022 Nibras Khadim, Muhummad Khairul Islam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/534 Mon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Social media marketing adoption by agriculturists: A TAM based study https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/537 <p><strong>Purpose : </strong>This research is intended to identify and analyse the underlying factors in the adoption of social media among agriculturists in South India.</p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework: </strong>Marketing through social media such as <em>Whatsapp,</em> <em>Facebook</em> and <em>YouTube,</em> particularly in India, is not well understood due to the lack of research in agricultural marketing. This paper bridges the research gap by applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and TAM.</p> <p><strong>Design/ Methodology/Approach: </strong>A structured questionnaire is adopted for data collection. Primary data was collected from 320 agriculturalists in Tamilnadu, South India.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>Multiple regression is used to test the significance of the research model. It demonstrates that the perceived credibility, reference group, infotainment, and perceived usefulness had a significant positive impact on the adoption of social media marketing. At the same time, perceived ease of use has a negative effect on attitude towards the adoption of social media marketing.</p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social Implications: </strong>The implication drawn from this study helps the researchers and agriculturalists use social media to increase farm product marketability.</p> <p><strong>Originality/ Value: </strong>This research adds value to the agricultural marketing literature by exploring the novel determinants of the adoption of social media.</p> Vasumathi Palaniswamy, Krishna Raj Copyright (c) 2022 Vasumathi Palaniswamy, Krishna Raj https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/537 Mon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Factors Influencing Small Medium Enterprise’s Behavior in Adopting E-fulfillment Services https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/550 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>Since the SMEs were the key players in these current digital businesses in Indonesia, the purpose of this study is to analyse the benefit in adopting the e-fulfillment services by considering the variable of technology acceptance model that was related with trust.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>This research was used three exogenous variables, namely: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived security and risks-free. In addition, the research considered the adoption in new e-fulfillment services platform as endogenous variable with trust as intervening variable. The data collected from the SME’s who are located in the Jakarta and its surrounding areas and further analyzed statistically using Structural Equation Model approach.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The key finding of this research was trust played a significant role in influencing the customer adoption of the e-fulfillment platform. The research also showed that perceived ease of used was the main factor in creating customer trust. The maximum usage of e-fulfillment services allowed the SME’s to focus more the product development and marketing activities.</p> <p><strong>Research, Practical &amp; Social Implications: </strong>SME’s would enjoy strong business competitive positioning if they were able in adopting the e-fulfillment services.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong>Since the concept of e-fulfillment services were quite new in Indonesia, the study recommends the needs to increase the awareness and knowledge to SME’s by ensuring the benefit of this new platform.&nbsp;</p> Florentina Kurniasari, Dennis Gunawan, Prio Utomo Copyright (c) 2022 Florentina Kurniasari, Dennis Gunawan, Prio Utomo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://openaccessojs.com/JBReview/article/view/550 Tue, 27 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0300